The Cambridge Encyclopedia Of Darwin And Evolutionary Thought Pdf
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A comparative analysis concludes that they espoused radically different theories despite exhibiting a continuity of strategy, much common structure and the same key idea. Both were theories of evolution by means of natural selection. In , organic adaptation was confined to occasional intervals initiated and controlled by de-stabilization events.
This volume is a comprehensive reference work on the life, labors and influence of the great evolutionist Charles Darwin. With more than sixty essays written by an international group representing the leading scholars in the field, this is the definitive work on Darwin. It covers the background to Darwin's discovery of the theory of evolution through natural selection, the work he produced and his contemporaries' reactions to it, and evaluates his influence on science in the years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. It also explores the implications of Darwin's discoveries in religion, politics, gender, literature, culture, philosophy and medicine, critically evaluating Darwin's legacy. Fully illustrated and clearly written, it is suitable for scholars and students as well as the general reader.
History of evolutionary thought
There was a moment, no more than perhaps twenty years ago, when scholars spilled a great deal of ink on the lamentable gap between critical studies of science and the presentation of science as a neutral, value-free understanding of the world around us: between a nuanced history of context and a narrative of triumphant progress over ignorance and superstition. I exaggerate perhaps, but many scholars will recognize some element of this simplistic binary, still not entirely lifeless but by no means dominant in science studies or the history of science. One significant change which forced that model from its prominent position has been the resurgence of an anti-Darwinian movement fueled not by scholars skeptical of grand celebratory narratives of science-as-progress, but by fundamentalist religions principally in the United States and in a number of Islamic countries such as Pakistan and Iran. This is not to suggest that religion and science are necessarily at odds; the historical record does not support such a conclusion. For fundamentalists, however, Charles Darwin continues to be a signal and central adversary. The result has been, in the U. This development of a robust and well-funded opposition is in itself a phenomenon that deserves attention and has already begun to acquire its own historians; Ronald Numbers, who writes in this volume on creationism, is also the author of a major history of the creationist movement.
A brief history of evolution
Where are we now along the evolutionary path? Have we stopped evolving? And what does it mean if we have? Evolutionary concepts first appeared in early Greek writings, for example, in the work of Anaximander and Empedocles. Anaximander proposed that animals could be transformed from one kind to another, and Empedocles speculated that they could be made up of various combinations of pre-existing parts.
The Theory of Evolution. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Mallet, J.
The latter has been split into two separate entries. It will also maintain a historical and textual approach. Other entries in this encyclopedia cited at the end of the article and the bibliography should be consulted for discussions beyond this point.
Evolutionary thought, the recognition that species change over time and the perceived understanding of how such processes work, has roots in antiquity—in the ideas of the ancient Greeks , Romans , and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science. With the beginnings of modern biological taxonomy in the late 17th century, two opposed ideas influenced Western biological thinking: essentialism , the belief that every species has essential characteristics that are unalterable, a concept which had developed from medieval Aristotelian metaphysics , and that fit well with natural theology ; and the development of the new anti-Aristotelian approach to modern science : as the Enlightenment progressed, evolutionary cosmology and the mechanical philosophy spread from the physical sciences to natural history. Naturalists began to focus on the variability of species; the emergence of paleontology with the concept of extinction further undermined static views of nature. In the early 19th century Jean-Baptiste Lamarck — proposed his theory of the transmutation of species , the first fully formed theory of evolution.
Charles Darwin , in full Charles Robert Darwin , born February 12, , Shrewsbury, Shropshire , England—died April 19, , Downe, Kent , English naturalist whose scientific theory of evolution by natural selection became the foundation of modern evolutionary studies. An affable country gentleman, Darwin at first shocked religious Victorian society by suggesting that animals and humans shared a common ancestry. However, his nonreligious biology appealed to the rising class of professional scientists, and by the time of his death evolutionary imagery had spread through all of science , literature, and politics.
Захватчики у ворот. Джабба взглянул на экран. - Вот и все! - По его лицу стекали ручейки пота.
Мне нужна кое-какая информация, - сказал. - Проваливал бы ты отсюда. - Я ищу одного человека. - Знать ничего не знаю. - Не знаю, о ком вы говорите, - поправил его Беккер, подзывая проходившую мимо официантку.
Интересно, о чем он. У Бринкерхоффа подогнулись колени. Он не мог понять, почему Мидж всегда права. Он не заметил отражения, мелькнувшего за оконным стеклом рядом с .
Глаза его партнера не отрывались от картинки на большом мониторе, установленном под крышей мини-автобуса. - Никаких. Продолжай движение.
Что бы ни содержалось в его посланиях, он хотел, чтобы вы их нашли, - это ложный след. - У тебя хорошее чутье, - парировал Стратмор, - но есть кое-что. Я ничего не нашел на Северную Дакоту, поэтому изменил направление поиска.
Лампочки в конце коридора не горели, и на протяжении последних двадцати метров можно было различать только смутные силуэты. Женщина с кровотечением… плачущая молодая пара… молящаяся маленькая девочка. Наконец Беккер дошел до конца темного коридора и толкнул чуть приоткрытую дверь слева.