Teaching And Learning Methods Pdf

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teaching and learning methods pdf

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A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn.

Teaching method

Argue the necessity of the adequacy of a didactic method to the proposed learning approach. The way we teach is influenced by the way we perceive learning. Learning theories are closely related to IQ theories. The latter highlights the existence of a general intelligence that determines the level of development of learning capacity Muijs and Reynolds as well as the existence of multiple intelligences Gardner One of the most popular classifications of learning theories has as a main criterion the historical period in which these theories and paradigms of psychology emerged.

From this point of view, we group the theories of learning into: behavioural, cognitive, humanistic, and constructivist. Informational, referential , giving an overview of the described reality;. Explanatory trying to answer the question of why the phenomenon of learning occurs;. Predictive or anticipatory through which can be predicted phenomena that cannot be explained in themselves;.

Systematisers summarising a substantial amount of information in order to make theoretical generalisations; and. Learning patterns are derived from learning theories. The most discussed are: behavioural models, the direct training model, models centred on information processing, person-centred models, models centred on a social dimension, the mastery learning model, and the modular approach model.

Training models guide the manner of implementing of teaching strategies. Didactical or Educational Strategies are those that designate the manner of pedagogical action, in order to achieve predetermined goals. Depending on the scope of the concept, we find the existence of two types of strategies: the macro type developed for medium and long time periods and the micro type built for short time periods. Methods and training procedures used in the didactic approach ;. Type of assessment considered Bocos and Jucan The pedagogical conception of the teacher dependent on the paradigms on which he bases his opinions;.

The pedagogical conception of the historical period to which reference is made, the trends in pedagogical practice;. The specificity of the school unit to which the class or group of students belongs. General strategies used in multiple learning situations or school disciplines ; and. Particular strategies specific to less generalisable approaches, to specific disciplines ;. The methods and the training procedures used in the didactic approach are elements of a didactic strategy.

Although many other structural elements of educational strategy are equally important, field practitioners tend to focus especially on didactic methods as the visible part of the didactic iceberg. We intended to invite the reader of this paper to reflection, presenting very briefly some of the most well-known didactic strategies to discover the importance and interdependence of each element of the strategy with the others.

The didactic method is a way through which the teacher conducts and organises the training of the trainees. The degree of freedom and of directing depends on the pedagogical conception at the core of the pedagogical approach. It is recommended that the choice of teaching-learning methods to be made according to training objectives, the skills of the trainees and trainer and the information content to be mastered.

At present, pedagogues prefer less structured approaches, ambiguous contexts that allow students to discover by themselves the most appropriate way to introduce new information into their own knowledge systems.

Although this orientation is predominant, the student-centered curriculum, literature is abundant in studies that still call into question a student centered approach Garrett ; Sawant and Rizvi ; Jacobs et al.

The cognitive function , representing the way of access to knowledge, and information, necessary for its plenary development;. The formative-educational function through exercising skills, certain motor and psychic functions at the same time as discovering scientific facts;. The motivational function inspiring the student, transforming the learning activity into an attractive, stimulating activity;.

The instrumental function allows the method to be positioned between the objectives and the results of the didactic activity, being a working tool, a means to efficiently achieve the plan and achieve the intended purpose; and. The normative function of optimising action is highlighted by the prescriptions, rules and phases that the method brings in achieving the objective Cerghit Some of the constituent elements of the methods are training procedures.

These are required operations chained into a hierarchical and logical structure to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching method. Between the method and procedure there are subordinate relationships, with structural and functional connotations.

Sometimes a method can become a procedure if it is used for a short period of time. A relevant example is that of the explanation method. Rarely, the method is used as the main approach of a lesson, but often, regardless of the method used, we use explanation in a training process.

There are various classifications in the literature according to different criteria. Due to the multiple functions that methods can perform as well as the different variants they may have, the rankings in certain categories are relative. Thus, a method may belong to different categories, depending on classification criteria. We continue by presenting a classification of teaching and learning methods, which contains examples of methods in certain categories, without claiming to be exhaustive.

Student centred or active-participatory methods :. Except for the lecture with an opponent, the method involves passing a consistent volume of information in a verbal form in a monologue from the teacher to the students. As it generates a high degree of passivity among students, exposure methods have been strongly criticised but have also experienced improvements following these criticisms. The school lecture requires the presentation of a series of ideas, theories, interpretations of scientific aspects, allowing the formation of a coherent image of the designated reality.

The story is used predominantly in educational contexts where trainees have limited life experience. It consists in presenting the information in a narrative form, respecting a sequence of events. The explanation is an presentation in which rational logical reasoning is obvious, clarifying blocks of information such as theorems, or scientific laws.

The university lecture focuses more on descriptive—explanatory presentation of the results of recent scientific research, due to the fact that the particularities of the age and the level of education of the participants is different. The time allocated to it is longer than for the other exposure methods.

Lecture with an opponent involves the intervention of another teacher or a well-informed student by asking questions or requesting additional information. It creates an effect as in a role play that ensures dynamism of presentation. The success of the method is requires that the target audience should have a minimum knowledge in advance. Information content should be logically connected, essentialised, without redundant information;. The quantity of information is appropriate to the psycho-pedagogical peculiarities of the educated;.

Maintaining an optimal verbal rhythm approximately 60—70 words per minute and an intensity adapted to the particularities of the audience;. Increased attention to expressive elements of verbal and nonverbal communication;.

Maintaining visual contact with the public, adjusting speech according to their reactions;. Use of means of scientific expression to help communication diagrams, schemes, or semantic maps ;. Providing recapitulative loops to maintain the logical connection of ideas; and. A consistent amount of knowledge can be transmitted within a relatively short time frame;. It presents a coherent presentation model and manner to systematise a theme and organise information;.

Students can receive additional information that helps explain the interpretation of a scientific reality. In its application, it is necessary to observe several conditions for the method to be considered effective. Thus, the teacher must ensure a socio-emotional climate appropriate to the conversation that will follow, to raise interest in the subject to be debated, to manage the number of participants in the discussion maximum 20 people are considered optimal , and to allow each member to express their opinion.

If the number of participants is higher, it is recommended to build several smaller discussion groups. The teacher will pay attention to the ergonomics of the space, facilitating the settlement of people in a way that they can communicate easily. The arrangement of the participants in a circle is preferable. Also, the teacher will assign the role of discussion moderator, will temper the tendencies of some to monopolise discussions and stimulate the involvement of the more reserved.

Students will know the topic under discussion, they will be taught to present ideas in a smooth, appropriate way and allow others to express themselves. The teacher will also give importance to time, so that all the topics proposed are discussed. Requirements for Formulating Questions :. The question contains limited content in need of clarifications, to be precise;. Questions can be varied: some claiming data, names, definitions, explanations, others expressing problematic situations;.

Giving the necessary thinking time, depending on the difficulty of the questions; and. Be grammatically and logically correct, regardless of the school discipline in which it is formulated;.

The answer is as complete as possible and appropriate to the question; and. Presumes related series of questions and answers at the end of which to shape out, as a conclusion, new scientific facts for the student. Essential in this method is combining questions and answers in compact structures, each new question having as its origin or starting point the answer to the previous question. Flexibility of logical operations, hypothetical-deductive reasoning of thinking;.

Developing the vocabulary, organising ideas in elevated communication structures;. Lack of interest on certain topics may generate passivism or negativity;. Methods of Direct and Indirect Exploration. Exercise Method. Depending on the form criterion of the exercise, they may be: oral, written or practical. Given their purpose and complexity, one can distinguish between exercises: introductory done with the teacher , to consolidate a model of reasoning or movement performed under the supervision of the teacher or independently , exercises with the role of integrating information, skills and abilities into ever larger systems, creative exercises or heuristics.

Using exercises that vary in form, to avoid negative emotions and stiffness;. Observing the didactic principle of grading the difficulty as far as mastering the previous levels;. Advantages of using the method. Disadvantages of using the method. Demonstration with objects involves the use of natural materials rocks, plants, chemicals in an appropriate educational context used in a laboratory or natural environment.

This type of demonstration is extremely convincing due to the direct, unmediated character of the lesson. Demonstration with substitutes maps, casts, sheets, three-dimensional materials is required when the object, the phenomenon we want to explain, is not directly accessible. Combined demonstration —demonstration through experiences combination of the above. One form of combined demonstration is that of a didactic drawing, combining the demonstration with action with that with a substitute.


Student teaching has ended. Suddenly you are standing in what will be your classroom for the next year and after the excitement of decorating it wears off and you begin lesson planning, you start to notice all of your lessons are executed the same way, just with different material. After a while, your students are bored, and so are you. There is. Figuring out the best ways you can deliver information to students can sometimes be even harder than what students go through in discovering how they learn best. The reason is because every single teacher needs a variety of different teaching methods in their theoretical teaching bag to pull from depending on the lesson, the students, and things as seemingly minute as the time the class is and the subject.

The term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction. Your choice of teaching method depends on what fits you — your educational philosophy, classroom demographic, subject area s and school mission statement. Teaching theories can be organized into four categories based on two major parameters: a teacher-centered approach versus a student-centered approach, and high-tech material use versus low-tech material use. Interested in developing your skills as a teacher? Explore online education short courses designed to give you an in depth understanding of various skills in teaching.

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The term 'Teaching method' refers to the general principle, pedagogy and management strategies used for the classroom program. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Effective teaching requires creativity and innovation, therefore adopting various teaching strategies such as differentiation and problem solving is key. The most accepted criterion for measuring good teaching is the amount of student learning that occurs. A teaching method consists of the principle and methods used by teachers to enable the students learning.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter discusses several methods of teaching science within the traditional formats: lectures, discussion sessions, and laboratories.

Никто ни в чем его не обвинит. Он сам расскажет о том, что случилось. Все люди умирают… что значит еще одна смерть.

teaching learning methods pdf

 Мидж, во-первых, там есть резервное электроснабжение. Так что полной тьмы быть не. Во-вторых, Стратмор гораздо лучше меня знает, что происходит в шифровалке в данный момент. Почему бы тебе не позвонить .

 Ты не заметил ничего. Ну, может, дошел какой-нибудь слушок. - Мидж, послушай.  - Он засмеялся.  - Попрыгунчик - древняя история.

Teaching method


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