Plant Genes Genomes And Genetics Pdf
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Plant genetics is the study of genes , genetic variation , and heredity specifically in plants. Plant genetics is similar in many ways to animal genetics but differs in a few key areas. The discoverer of genetics was Gregor Mendel , a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms most famously pea plants inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance".
This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene. Much of Mendel's work with plants still forms the basis for modern plant genetics. Plants, like all known organisms, use DNA to pass on their traits. Animal genetics often focuses on parentage and lineage, but this can sometimes be difficult in plant genetics due to the fact that plants can, unlike most animals, be self-fertile. Speciation can be easier in many plants due to unique genetic abilities, such as being well adapted to polyploidy.
Plants are unique in that they are able to produce energy-dense carbohydrates via photosynthesis , a process which is achieved by use of chloroplasts.
Chloroplasts, like the superficially similar mitochondria , possess their own DNA. Chloroplasts thus provide an additional reservoir for genes and genetic diversity, and an extra layer of genetic complexity not found in animals.
The study of plant genetics has major economic impacts: many staple crops are genetically modified to increase yields, confer pest and disease resistance, provide resistance to herbicides, or to increase their nutritional value.
The earliest evidence of plant domestication found has been dated to 11, years before present in ancestral wheat. While initially selection may have happened unintentionally, it is very likely that by 5, years ago farmers had a basic understanding of heredity and inheritance, the foundation of genetics.
The field of plant genetics began with the work of Gregor Johann Mendel , who is often called the "father of genetics". He was an Augustinian priest and scientist born on 20 July in Austria-Hungary. He worked at the Abbey of St. Thomas in Bruno , where his organism of choice for studying inheritance and traits was the pea plant.
Mendel's work tracked many phenotypic traits of pea plants, such as their height, flower color, and seed characteristics. Mendel showed that the inheritance of these traits follows two particular laws , which were later named after him. The significance of Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century. Its rediscovery prompted the foundation of modern genetics. His discoveries, deduction of segregation ratios , and subsequent laws have not only been used in research to gain a better understanding of plant genetics, but also play a large role in plant breeding.
In the early s, botanists and statisticians began to examine the segregation ratios put forth by Mendel. Castle discovered that while individual traits may segregate and change over time with selection, that when selection is stopped and environmental effects are taken into account, the genetic ratio stops changing and reach a sort of stasis, the foundation of Population Genetics.
Hardy and W. Weinberg, which ultimately gave rise to the concept of Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium published in For a more thorough exploration of the history of population genetics, see History of Population Genetics by Bob Allard. Around this same time, genetic and plant breeding experiments in maize began. Maize that has been self-pollinated experiences a phenomenon called inbreeding depression. Researchers, like Nils Heribert-Nilsson , recognized that by crossing plants and forming hybrids, they were not only able to combine traits from two desirable parents, but the crop also experienced heterosis or hybrid vigor.
This was the beginning of identifying gene interactions or epistasis. By the early s, Donald Forsha Jones had invented a method that led to the first hybrid maize seed that were available commercially. Corn Belt by the mid s led to a rapid growth in the seed production industry and ultimately seed research. The strict requirements for producing hybrid seed led to the development of careful population and inbred line maintenance, keeping plants isolated and unable to out-cross, which produced plants that better allowed researchers to tease out different genetic concepts.
The structure of these populations allowed scientist such a T. Dobzhansky , S. Wright , and R. Fisher to develop evolutionary biology concepts as well as explore speciation over time and the statistics underlying plant genetics. While breeding experiments were taking place, other scientists such as Nikolai Vavilov  and Charles M. Rick were interested in wild progenitor species of modern crop plants. Botanists between the s and s often would travel to regions of high plant diversity and seek out wild species that had given rise to domesticated species after selection.
Determining how crops changed over time with selection was initially based on morphological features. It developed over time to chromosomal analysis, then genetic marker analysis, and eventual genomic analysis. Identifying traits and their underlying genetics allowed for transferring useful genes and the traits they controlled from either wild or mutant plants to crop plants.
Understanding and manipulating of plant genetics was in its heyday during the Green Revolution brought about by Norman Borlaug. During this time, the molecule of heredity, DNA, was also discovered, which allowed scientists to actually examine and manipulate genetic information directly. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses.
The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information. DNA is often compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe, or a code, since it contains the instructions needed to construct other components of cells, such as proteins and RNA molecules.
The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, and their location within the genome are referred to as genetic loci , but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in regulating the use of this genetic information. Geneticists , including plant geneticists , use this sequence of DNA to their advantage to better find and understand the role of different genes within a given genome.
Through research and plant breeding, manipulation of different plant genes and loci encoded by the DNA sequence of the plant chromosomes by various methods can be done to produce different or desired genotypes that result in different or desired phenotypes.
Plants, like all other known living organisms, pass on their traits using DNA. Plants however are unique from other living organisms in the fact that they have Chloroplasts. Like mitochondria , chloroplasts have their own DNA. Like animals, plants experience somatic mutations regularly, but these mutations can contribute to the germ line with ease, since flowers develop at the ends of branches composed of somatic cells.
People have known of this for centuries, and mutant branches are called " sports ". If the fruit on the sport is economically desirable, a new cultivar may be obtained. Some plant species are capable of self-fertilization , and some are nearly exclusively self-fertilizers. This means that a plant can be both mother and father to its offspring, a rare occurrence in animals. Scientists and hobbyists attempting to make crosses between different plants must take special measures to prevent the plants from self-fertilizing.
In plant breeding , people create hybrids between plant species for economic and aesthetic reasons. For example, the yield of Corn has increased nearly five-fold in the past century due in part to the discovery and proliferation of hybrid corn varieties.
Plants are generally more capable of surviving, and indeed flourishing, as polyploids. Polyploid organisms have more than two sets of homologous chromosomes. For example, humans have two sets of homologous chromosomes, meaning that a typical human will have 2 copies each of 23 different chromosomes, for a total of Wheat on the other hand, while having only 7 distinct chromosomes, is considered a hexaploid and has 6 copies of each chromosome, for a total of In plants however this is no such problem, polyploid individuals are created frequently by a variety of processes, however once created usually cannot cross back to the parental type.
Polyploid individuals, if capable of self-fertilizing, can give rise to a new genetically distinct lineage, which can be the start of a new species. This is often called "instant speciation ". Polyploids generally have larger fruit, an economically desirable trait, and many human food crops, including wheat, maize , potatoes , peanuts ,  strawberries and tobacco , are either accidentally or deliberately created polyploids.
Arabidopsis thaliana , also known as thale cress, has been the model organism for the study of plant genetics. As Drosphila , a species of fruit fly, was to the understanding of early genetics, so has been arabidopsis to the understanding of plant genetics. It was the first plant to ever have its genome sequenced in the year It has a small genome, making the initial sequencing more attainable. It has a genome size of Mbp that encodes about 25, genes.
Information housed in TAIR include the complete genome sequence along with gene structure , gene product information, gene expression , DNA and seed stocks, genome maps, genetic and physical markers , publications, and information about the Arabidopsis research community. Brachypodium distachyon is an experimental model grass that has many attributes that make it an excellent model for temperate cereals. Agronomy , Molecular biology , Genetics. Nicotiana benthamiana is often considered a model organism for both plant-pathogen and transgenic studies.
Because it is easily transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens , it is used to study both the expression of pathogen genes introduced into a plant or test new genetic cassette effects. Genetically modified GM foods are produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering techniques allow for the introduction of new traits as well as greater control over traits than previous methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding.
An important side effect of GM crops has been decreased land requirements, . Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in , when Calgene first marketed its unsuccessful Flavr Savr delayed-ripening tomato. Genetically modified crops have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and for better nutrient profiles. There is a scientific consensus     that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,      but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.
Genetic modification has been the cause for much research into modern plant genetics, and has also lead to the sequencing of many plant genomes. Today there are two predominant procedures of transforming genes in organisms: the " Gene gun " method and the Agrobacterium method. The gene gun method is also referred to as "biolistics" ballistics using biological components. This technique is used for in vivo within a living organism transformation and has been especially useful in monocot species like corn and rice.
This approach literally shoots genes into plant cells and plant cell chloroplasts. DNA is coated onto small particles of gold or tungsten approximately two micrometres in diameter. The particles are placed in a vacuum chamber and the plant tissue to be engineered is placed below the chamber. The particles are propelled at high velocity using a short pulse of high pressure helium gas, and hit a fine mesh baffle placed above the tissue while the DNA coating continues into any target cell or tissue.
Transformation via Agrobacterium has been successfully practiced in dicots , i.
This section covers all aspects of the genome structure and function of plants, including crop species. Stauntonia chinensis DC. It has been used as a traditional herbal medicinal plant, which could synthesize a number of triter Citation: BMC Genomics 22 Content type: Research article. Published on: 6 March
Angiosperms, the flowering plants, provide the essential resources for human life, such as food, energy, oxygen, and materials. They also promoted the evolution of human, animals, and the planet earth. Despite the numerous advances in genome reports or sequencing technologies, no review covers all the released angiosperm genomes and the genome databases for data sharing. Based on the rapid advances and innovations in the database reconstruction in the last few years, here we provide a comprehensive review for three major types of angiosperm genome databases, including databases for a single species, for a specific angiosperm clade, and for multiple angiosperm species. The scope, tools, and data of each type of databases and their features are concisely discussed. The genome databases for a single species or a clade of species are especially popular for specific group of researchers, while a timely-updated comprehensive database is more powerful for address of major scientific mysteries at the genome scale. Considering the low coverage of flowering plants in any available database, we propose construction of a comprehensive database to facilitate large-scale comparative studies of angiosperm genomes and to promote the collaborative studies of important questions in plant biology.
The genetic architecture of plant height was investigated in a set of recent European winter wheat varieties plus 14 spring wheat varieties based on field data in eight environments. Rht-D1 was significantly associated with plant height by using a mixed linear model and employing a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification. Linear regression between the most effective markers and the BLUEs for plant height indicated additive effects for the MTAs of different chromosomal regions. Analysis of syntenic regions in the rice genome revealed closely linked rice genes related to gibberellin acid GA metabolism and perception, i. The data indicated that besides the widely used GA-insensitive dwarfing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 there is a wide spectrum of loci available that could be used for modulating plant height in variety development. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Historically, unintentional plant selection and subsequent crop domestication, coupled with the need and desire to get more food and feed products, have resulted in the continuous development of plant breeding and genetics efforts. The progress made toward this goal elucidated plant genome compositions and led to decoding the full DNA sequences of plant genomes controlling the entire plant life. Plant genomics research efforts have continuously increased in the past 30 years due to the availability of cost-effective, high-throughput DNA sequencing platforms that resulted in fully sequenced plant genomes with broad implications for every aspect of plant biology research and application.
Tea plant genomics: achievements, challenges and perspectives
Plant genetics is the study of genes , genetic variation , and heredity specifically in plants. Plant genetics is similar in many ways to animal genetics but differs in a few key areas. The discoverer of genetics was Gregor Mendel , a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar. Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms most famously pea plants inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene. Much of Mendel's work with plants still forms the basis for modern plant genetics.
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Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics provides a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of plant gene expression. Unique in explaining the subject from a plant perspective, it highlights the importance of key processes, many first discovered in plants, that impact how plants develop and interact with the environment. This text covers topics ranging from plant genome structure and the key control points in how genes are expressed, to the mechanisms by which proteins are generated and how their activities are controlled and altered by posttranslational modifications. Written by a highly respected team of specialists in plant biology with extensive experience in teaching at undergraduate and graduate level, this textbook will be invaluable for students and instructors alike. Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics also includes:.
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