Vitamin Diseases And Source List Pdf

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Vitamin and mineral supplements from a bottle simply can't match all the biologically active compounds teeming in a well-stocked pantry.

They include:. The best way for your child to get enough vitamins and minerals is by eating a wide variety of foods from the five healthy food groups :. Our bodies absorb vitamins, minerals and other nutrients better when they come from food, rather than from vitamin and mineral supplements. Vitamin A You get vitamin A from liver, meat, milk, eggs, and orange fruit and vegies like carrots and sweet potatoes. You need vitamin A for eyesight, healthy skin, growth, development and good immune function.

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Nutritional disease , any of the nutrient-related diseases and conditions that cause illness in humans. They may include deficiencies or excesses in the diet, obesity and eating disorders , and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease , hypertension , cancer , and diabetes mellitus.

Nutritional diseases also include developmental abnormalities that can be prevented by diet, hereditary metabolic disorders that respond to dietary treatment , the interaction of foods and nutrients with drugs , food allergies and intolerances, and potential hazards in the food supply. All of these categories are described in this article.

For a discussion of essential nutrients , dietary recommendations, and human nutritional needs and concerns throughout the life cycle, see nutrition, human. Although the so-called diseases of civilization—for example, heart disease , stroke , cancer, and diabetes—will be the focus of this article, the most significant nutrition-related disease is chronic undernutrition, which plagues more than million people worldwide.

Undernutrition is a condition in which there is insufficient food to meet energy needs; its main characteristics include weight loss, failure to thrive, and wasting of body fat and muscle. Low birth weight in infants , inadequate growth and development in children , diminished mental function, and increased susceptibility to disease are among the many consequences of chronic persistent hunger , which affects those living in poverty in both industrialized and developing countries.

The largest number of chronically hungry people live in Asia , but the severity of hunger is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa. At the start of the 21st century, approximately 20, people, the majority of them children, died each day from undernutrition and related diseases that could have been prevented. The deaths of many of these children stem from the poor nutritional status of their mothers as well as the lack of opportunity imposed by poverty.

Only a small percentage of hunger deaths is caused by starvation due to catastrophic food shortages. During the s, for example, worldwide famine epidemic failure of the food supply more often resulted from complex social and political issues and the ravages of war than from natural disasters such as droughts and floods. Malnutrition is the impaired function that results from a prolonged deficiency—or excess—of total energy or specific nutrients such as protein , essential fatty acids , vitamins , or minerals.

This condition can result from fasting and anorexia nervosa ; persistent vomiting as in bulimia nervosa or inability to swallow ; impaired digestion and intestinal malabsorption; or chronic illnesses that result in loss of appetite e.

Malnutrition can also result from limited food availability, unwise food choices, or overzealous use of dietary supplements. Selected nutrient-deficiency diseases are listed in the table.

Chronic undernutrition manifests primarily as protein -energy malnutrition PEM , which is the most common form of malnutrition worldwide. Also known as protein-calorie malnutrition, PEM is a continuum in which people—all too often children—consume too little protein, energy, or both.

At one end of the continuum is kwashiorkor , characterized by a severe protein deficiency, and at the other is marasmus, an absolute food deprivation with grossly inadequate amounts of both energy and protein. An infant with marasmus is extremely underweight and has lost most or all subcutaneous fat. The cause is a diet very low in calories from all sources including protein , often from early weaning to a bottled formula prepared with unsafe water and diluted because of poverty.

Poor hygiene and continued depletion lead to a vicious cycle of gastroenteritis and deterioration of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract , which interferes with absorption of nutrients from the little food available and further reduces resistance to infection. If untreated, marasmus may result in death due to starvation or heart failure. Kwashiorkor , a Ghanaian word meaning the disease that the first child gets when the new child comes, is typically seen when a child is weaned from high-protein breast milk onto a carbohydrate food source with insufficient protein.

Children with this disease, which is characterized by a swollen belly due to edema fluid retention , are weak, grow poorly, and are more susceptible to infectious diseases , which may result in fatal diarrhea. Other symptoms of kwashiorkor include apathy , hair discoloration, and dry, peeling skin with sores that fail to heal.

Weight loss may be disguised because of the presence of edema, enlarged fatty liver , and intestinal parasites ; moreover, there may be little wasting of muscle and body fat. Kwashiorkor and marasmus can also occur in hospitalized patients receiving intravenous glucose for an extended time, as when recovering from surgery , or in those with illnesses causing loss of appetite or malabsorption of nutrients. Persons with eating disorders, cancer, AIDS , and other illnesses where appetite fails or absorption of nutrients is hampered may lose muscle and organ tissue as well as fat stores.

Treatment of PEM has three components. The speed and ultimate success of recovery depend upon the severity of malnutrition, the timeliness of treatment, and the adequacy of ongoing support.

Particularly during the first year of life, starvation may result in reduced brain growth and intellectual functioning that cannot be fully restored.

Nutritional disease Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Healthline - Nutritional Deficiencies National Center for Biotechnology Information - PubMed Central - Nutrition and the science of disease prevention: a systems approach to support metabolic health.

See Article History. Children with rickets. The disease, which most commonly strikes children, causes bone deformities such as bowlegs. Rickets is caused by a lack of vitamin D or calcium. Britannica Quiz. How much do you know about human anatomy? How about medical conditions? The brain? Launching a cookbook for Irish cancer patients with involuntary weight loss. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

Subscribe Now. Select nutrient-deficiency diseases disease and key nutrient involved symptoms foods rich in key nutrient Source: Gordon M. Wardlaw, Perspectives in Nutrition A child affected by marasmus sitting in a Nigerian relief camp during the civil war that resulted from Biafra's attempt to become independent from Nigeria in the s.

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Best source of vitamins? Your plate, not your medicine cabinet

If you're like most kids, you've probably heard at least one parent say, "Don't forget to take your vitamin! Vitamins and minerals are substances that are found in foods we eat. Your body needs them to work properly, so you grow and develop just like you should. When it comes to vitamins, each one has a special role to play. For example:. There are two types of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble.

Vitamins and Minerals – Deficiency Diseases

Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development. There are 13 essential vitamins. This means that these vitamins are required for the body to work properly. They are:.

The list of vitamins and minerals below can give you an understanding of how particular different types of vitamins and minerals work in your body, how much of each nutrient you need every day , and what types of food to eat to ensure that you are getting an adequate supply. The recommendations in this vitamins chart are based largely on guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. Recommended amounts of different types of vitamins may be expressed in milligrams mg , micrograms mcg , or international units IU , depending on the nutrient. Unless specified, values represent those for adults ages 19 and older. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.

A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you. Eating a healthy diet remains the best way to get sufficient amounts of the vitamins and minerals you need.

Multiple signs are therefore seen, although in general, signs of B vitamin deficiencies appear first.

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Nutritional disease

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