United States House Of Representatives Committee On Transportation And Infrastructure Tsa Pdf

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The report demonstrates that the private-federal screening option known as the Screening Partnership Program SPP is the most cost-effective screening model. The report further illustrates that the all-federal screening model is more costly and less efficient. The SPP was established to allow TSA-certified contractors, under federal supervision and regulation, to conduct passenger and baggage screening at airports.

Transportation Security: Issues for the 115th Congress

After the terrorist attacks in , the federal government moved quickly to increase spending on aviation security and take control of passenger and baggage screening at U. TSA's main activity is operating security screening at more than commercial airports across the nation. The agency also runs the Federal Air Marshal Service FAMS , analyzes intelligence data, and oversees the security of rail, transit, highways, and pipelines.

After more than a decade of experience, it is clear that the creation of TSA and the federal takeover of airport screening was a mistake. Auditors have found that TSA's screening performance has been no better, and possibly worse, than private screening. And TSA has become known for mismanagement, dubious investments, and security failures.

We would be better off without a monolithic federal agency that controls all major aspects of aviation security. Most airports in Europe and Canada use private companies for their passenger and baggage screening. That practice creates a more efficient and innovative security structure, and it allows governments to focus on gathering intelligence and conducting analysis rather than on trying to manage a large workforce. Congress should abolish TSA. TSA activities that have not shown substantial benefits should be eliminated.

Passenger and baggage screening—which represents about two-thirds of TSA's budget—should be moved to the control of airports and opened to competitive private bidding.

And the remaining parts of TSA—including intelligence and analysis activities—should be moved to other federal agencies. After the terrorist attacks in , Congress and the George W. Bush administration moved quickly to boost government spending on aviation security and to take control of previously private airport screening. President Bush promised that DHS would "improve efficiency without growing government," would create "future savings," and would cut out "duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.

Alas, the president's promise of creating a lean, nonbureaucratic DHS was just empty words. TSA's main focus is aviation security, but the agency also oversees the security of rail, transit, highways, and pipelines. About 67 percent of TSA's budget is for passenger and baggage screening, 12 percent is for the FAMS, 3 percent is for surface transportation, and the remaining 18 percent is for agencywide activities such as information technology and intelligence.

Before , the Federal Aviation Administration FAA was responsible for the security of civil aviation, and it oversaw passenger and baggage screening performed by private companies on behalf of the airlines. The creation of TSA nationalized screening at commercial airports. Today, there are about 53, federal airport screeners, who account for 85 percent of TSA's overall workforce.

Nationalizing airport screening was a mistake, as one of the principal architects of the TSA legislation, Rep. John Mica R-FL , now recognizes. As chairman of a House committee overseeing TSA during and , he was scathing in his criticisms. The agency is a "bloated bureaucracy" and has a "track record of security failures. Mica is right. TSA has often made the news for its poor performance and for abusing the civil liberties of airline passengers. It has had a troubled workforce and has made numerous dubious investments.

For example, the high cost of the full-body scanners that are now deployed in most U. Perhaps most important, TSA's screening performance has been no better, and possibly worse, than the performance of the remaining private screeners at U. After examining TSA's shortcomings, this essay discusses the advantages of privatized airport screening, which is the approach used in many other countries. It concludes that Congress should dismantle the "massive, unwieldy bureaucracy" of the TSA and move responsibility for screening to the airports and the private sector.

TSA has had workforce management problems since its inception. In , the Inspector General for DHS assailed TSA for handing out excessive employee bonuses, throwing a lavish awards ceremony, and spending in other wasteful ways. It has lived an entire bureaucratic life in quick time, moving from urgency toward complacency in just three short years.

More recently, a House committee that oversees TSA reported in that the agency's operations are "costly, counterintuitive, and poorly executed. TSA's performance at security screening has been mediocre at best. In the years following the federal takeover, auditors typically found that the government's screening was no better than the previous private screening. In , screeners in Los Angeles and Chicago failed to catch 75 percent and 60 percent, respectively, of fake explosives in tests.

TSA workforces at numerous airports have been subject to "meltdowns," as Rep. John Mica calls them. In , the TSA sought to fire 12 baggage screeners for botching security procedures at the Charlotte airport.

Management problems stemming from TSA's large screening workforce distract the agency from its core responsibilities in aviation security. A House report argued that "due to high attrition, TSA has spent so much time managing itself that it has been unable to focus necessary resources on oversight and regulation of U.

The solution is to get TSA out of the screening business and devolve that responsibility to the nation's airports. Centralized management of 53, screeners at more than separate airports across the nation makes no sense. All airports have their unique variations in passenger levels, for example, and need to continually adjust their workforces, but TSA is slow in making needed changes.

That is one reason numerous airports are interested in returning to private screening, as discussed below. The recent unionization of TSA's workforce could make effective management even more difficult. The Bush administration blocked attempts to unionize TSA workers; TSA administrator Admiral James Loy argued in that "collective bargaining is not compatible with the flexibility required to wage the war against terrorism.

The Obama administration, however, has been very pro-union, and it pushed to cover TSA workers with collective bargaining. Collective bargaining means monopoly union control over a workplace. Monopoly unions tend to reduce workplace efficiency by protecting poorly performing workers and pushing for larger staffing levels than required.

They tend to resist the introduction of labor-saving technologies and create a more rule-laden workforce. TSA managers, for example, have to negotiate with union representatives regarding the reassignment of employees, which is problematic for an industry as dynamic as aviation. Air carrier schedules and route volumes often change, which creates fluctuating demand for airport screeners.

Collective bargaining also gives unions the exclusive right to speak for covered workers, many of whom may disagree with their views. And it gives government insiders a privileged position to push their own agendas at the expense of the general public good.

For example, unions have lobbied heavily to end the Screening Partnership Program SPP , which allows private airport screening at some airports. When Sacramento officials were considering private screeners, for example, the "AFGE rallied its allies in organized labor and lobbied supervisors, city council members and state legislators in an attempt to block the plan.

Security experts have criticized DHS and TSA for not allocating their resources based on cost-benefit analyses and detailed risk assessments. A congressional report noted that the TSA has had "a reactive approach to security. And after an attempt to bring a liquid explosive onto a plane in , TSA restricted liquids in carry-on luggage. But while the agency has responded to some high-profile incidents, it apparently does not keep an accurate database of all security breaches to better inform its decisionmaking.

TSA seems to have a bias toward spending money on new technologies that have not been adequately vetted.

These are the "full-body scanners" that the agency began deploying in The scanners see beneath passengers' clothing, causing major privacy concerns. The high costs of AITs, the extra airport congestion they cause, and the questionable detection benefits of the machines make them a dubious investment. Remarkably, TSA did not do a cost-benefit analysis of the machines before it rolled them out across the country.

In July , a federal appeals court effectively ordered TSA to perform an analysis, which is still pending at this time. Advocates of AIT machines argue that they can find explosives hidden under clothing, such as the bomb carried by Farouk Abdulmutallab in the attempted Christmas Day bombing on a flight from Amsterdam to Detroit in One problem with AIT machines is that human error can undermine their effectiveness.

In , an undercover agent snuck a firearm through AIT machines at the Dallas-Fort Worth airport several times, apparently due to the inattentiveness of TSA officers.

Another issue is that even with TSA's planned roll-out of the machines to all major U. AIT machines are effective in detecting high-density objects, but less effective with low-density materials such as gels, powders, and liquids.

At least one airplane bomb plot, uncovered in , has focused on liquid explosives. As noted, Mueller and Stewart found that the machines failed their cost-benefit analysis. It employs about 3, officers at airports to identify possible terrorists on the basis of behavioral indicators such as signs of stress. The scientific theories behind the SPOT approach are unproven. The idea is that terrorists can be detected through small behaviors that reveal stress, but people in airports rushing to catch planes are often under stress.

The SPOT program illustrates the problems with top-down federal control over aviation security. Shahzad paid cash for his flight to Dubai days after his bombing attempt, and he boarded a plane even though he was on TSA's "no fly" list.

TSA apprehended 1, criminals with the program between and for such infractions as breaking immigration rules and having outstanding warrants. The use of air marshals on U. FAMS places armed federal agents onboard commercial flights to deal with possible terrorist attacks. That might sound like a good idea, but FAMS has not yielded results in proportion to the program's high costs.

It is very expensive to place highly trained air marshals on even a small fraction of all flights in the United States. Note that these arrests have generally stemmed from incidents of passengers being unruly or intoxicated. None of the arrests has been related to terrorism. Theoretically, having air marshals on some flights could provide some deterrence to hijacking. But with air marshals on just 5 percent or so of U. One initiative was the mandate to install hardened cockpit doors on more than 6, commercial airliners.

Pilots have volunteered in significant numbers for the FFDO program, and about 20 percent of them are in the program today. John Mica has noted, "Pilots are the first line of defense against terrorist attacks in the sky, and the most cost-effective layer of security that we have in a system that's prone to security breaches.

Rather, airline passengers and flight attendants have learned to be much more aware of potential attacks in the air, and they have thwarted terrorists on U.

In both instances, passengers quickly tackled the would-be bombers when foul play was suspected. In May , for example, a passenger on a plane from Alaska to Oregon tried to open the emergency exit door during flight, but passengers who noticed his odd behavior quickly restrained him.

Aviation screening is an important element of aviation security, but that does not mean that all TSA actions are appropriate.

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After the terrorist attacks in , the federal government moved quickly to increase spending on aviation security and take control of passenger and baggage screening at U. TSA's main activity is operating security screening at more than commercial airports across the nation. The agency also runs the Federal Air Marshal Service FAMS , analyzes intelligence data, and oversees the security of rail, transit, highways, and pipelines. After more than a decade of experience, it is clear that the creation of TSA and the federal takeover of airport screening was a mistake. Auditors have found that TSA's screening performance has been no better, and possibly worse, than private screening.


3 Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration, ''TSA Year in Review,'' Janu- ary. 12, catamountconnections.org​17__NTAS_catamountconnections.org) 7 U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and tation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives of a.


Security Training for Surface Transportation Employees

While hardening the transportation sector from terrorist attack is difficult, measures can be taken to deter terrorists. The dilemma facing Congress is how best to construct and finance a system of deterrence, protection, and response that effectively reduces the possibility and consequences of another terrorist attack without unduly interfering with travel, commerce, and civil liberties. Aviation security has been a major focus of transportation security policy since the terrorist attacks of September 11, Until recently, TSA applied relatively uniform methods to screen airline passengers, focusing primarily on advances in screening technology to improve security and efficiency. TSA has recently shifted away from this approach, which assumes a uniform level of risk among all airline travelers, to risk-based screening approaches that focus more intensely on passengers thought to pose elevated security risks.

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The House Committee on Homeland Security has jurisdiction over matters related to national defense.

House Committee on Homeland Security

United States. Defense and Security. In order to counter the persistent and ever-changing threat of terrorism, experts say officials need to do more to ensure the safety of air travel. There is a lot of bang for the buck," says Steven Simon , the former senior director for counterterrorism at the National Security Council. Yet passengers seem unfazed by the prospect of terrorist attacks on planes. The TSA has implemented more thorough screening procedures for passengers and their baggage, whereby passengers go through metal detectors, carry-on bags are x-rayed, and checked baggage passes through an explosive detection system.

Text of H. Rule PDF. Structured rule. Provides two hours of general debate on the bill equally divided and controlled by the chair and ranking minority member of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Waives all points of order against consideration of the bill.

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Стратмор понял, что она смертельно напугана. Он спокойно подошел к двери, выглянул на площадку лестницы и всмотрелся в темноту. Хейла нигде не было. Тогда он вернулся в кабинет и прикрыл за собой дверь, затем заблокировал ее стулом, подошел к столу и достал что-то из выдвижного ящика. В тусклом свете мониторов Сьюзан увидела, что это, и побледнела.

Я отказался взять кольцо, а эта фашистская свинья его схватила. Беккер убрал блокнот и ручку. Игра в шарады закончилась.

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Это было сделано тайно.

 - Я его продала. ГЛАВА 33 Токуген Нуматака смотрел в окно и ходил по кабинету взад-вперед как зверь в клетке. Человек, с которым он вступил в контакт, Северная Дакота, не звонил. Проклятые американцы. Никакого представления о пунктуальности.

 Да, сэр. Фонтейн понимал, что сейчас не время для объяснении. Он бросил взгляд на истончающиеся защитные щиты.

2 Comments

  1. Isaac H. 18.01.2021 at 00:22

    PDF Text Details Share House Hearing, th Congress - TSA's Efforts to Advance Risk-Based Security th Congress - Measuring Outcomes to Understand the State of Border Security House Hearing, th Congress - Future of the Homeland Security Missions of Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure.

  2. Ghosafpomcatch1984 18.01.2021 at 18:56

    View the PDF version.