Air Pollution Causes Effects And Prevention Pdf
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Atmospheric pollution is not the only type of contamination that is harming living beings on the planet.
- Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran
- Air Pollution: Causes, Effects and Solution
- Causes, Effects, and Solutions for the Woes of Air Pollution on Human Life
A physical, biological or chemical alteration to the air present in the atmosphere is referred to as air pollution. Air pollution occurs whenever any harmful gases, dust mites, smoke or smog enters into our atmosphere and makes it difficult for plants, animals, and humans to breathe as the air becomes toxic and contaminated. Air pollution can be caused by primary sources or secondary sources.
Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer.
Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight.
In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. Air pollution is a major problem of recent decades, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. The sources of pollution vary from small unit of cigarettes and natural sources such as volcanic activities to large volume of emission from motor engines of automobiles and industrial activities.
Air pollution has now emerged in developing countries as a result of industrial activities and also increase the quantity of emission sources such as inappropriate vehicles. Ahvaz is the most air polluted city in the world with microdust blowing in from neighboring countries, and particulate levels three times that of Beijing, and nearly 13 times that of London. The present article is neither a systematic review nor a descriptive, educational study. It is a problem-based descriptive review in which the authors try to explain a problem which is the major health and ecological problem in developing countries like Iran.
In this review, we have tried to summarize the toxicology of air pollutants and related diseases with a possible mechanism of action and appropriate management of the patients. Therefore, it shall be useful for the environmental and health professionals particularly policy makers, emergency physicians, and other clinicians who may be involved in air pollution and related diseases.
In this paper, we also discuss sources of air pollution and proposed some feasible solutions which may be beneficial for the environmental legislators and decision makers. It is made up of many kinds of pollutants including materials in solid, liquid, and gas phases.
The Pollutant Standard Index PSI is a numerical value and indicator of pollutants that is normally used to facilitate risk assessment. It is a numeric value between zero to According to Johnson et al. It provides a number from healthy standard level of zero to a very hazardous level of above to indicate the level of health risk associated with air quality.
Based on PSI, air quality is classified into six major indices, which is marked by color codes and each color corresponds to a different level of health concerns. Principally, green is defined as a color indicator for healthy air quality; while yellow, orange, red, purple, and maroon colors indicate as moderate, unhealthy for sensitive groups, unhealthy, very unhealthy, and hazardous air quality, respectively.
These ranges and codes may differ in the different methods of classifications in different countries. Effects of air pollutants on living organism will not only be limited to the human and animal health but also include the whole environment. Different geographical conditions, global climate changes, and the environmental variations affect the human health and the environment including the animal life.
Ecologically, air pollution can cause serious environmental damages to the groundwater, soil, and air. Studies on the relationship between air pollution and reducing species diversity clearly show the detrimental effects of environmental contaminants on the extinction of animals and plants species. Every material in the air which could affect human health or have a profound impact on the environment is defined as air pollutants. According to the World Health Organization WHO , particle pollution, ground-level O 3 , CO, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead Pb are the six major air pollutants which harm human health and also the ecosystem.
There are many pollutants of suspended materials such as dust, fumes, smokes, mists, gaseous pollutants, hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds VOCs , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs , and halogen derivatives in the air which at the high concentrations cause vulnerability to many diseases including different types of cancers.
Particle pollutants are major parts of air pollutants. In a simple definition, they are a mixture of particles found in the air. Particle pollution which is more known as PM is linked with most of pulmonary and cardiac-associated morbidity and mortality.
The size of particle pollutants is directly associated with the onset and progression of the lungs and heart diseases. Particles of smaller size reach the lower respiratory tract and thus have greater potential for causing the lungs and heart diseases. Depending on the level of exposure, particulate pollutants may cause mild to severe illnesses. Wheezing, cough, dry mouth, and limitation in activities due to breathing problems are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of respiratory disease resulted from air pollution.
Long-term exposure to current ambient PM concentrations may lead to a marked reduction in life expectancy. The increase of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality are the main reasons for the reduction in life expectancy. Reduced lung functions in children and adults leading to asthmatic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD are also serious diseases which induce lower quality of life and reduced life expectancy. Strong evidence on the effect of long-term exposure to PM on cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary mortality come from cohort studies.
O 3 with the chemical formula of O 3 is a colorless gas which is the major constituent of the atmosphere. It is found both at the ground level and in the upper regions of the atmosphere which is called troposphere. GLO is believed to have a plausible association with increased risk of respiratory diseases, particularly asthma. As a powerful oxidant, O 3 accepts electrons from other molecules.
There is a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the surface fluid lining of the respiratory tract and cell membranes that underlie the lining fluid. The double bonds available in these fatty acids are unstable. O 3 attacks unpaired electron to form ozonides and progress through an unstable zwitterion or trioxolane depending on the presence of water. These ultimately recombine or decompose to lipohydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide.
These pathways are thought to initiate propagation of lipid radicals and auto-oxidation of cell membranes and macromolecules. It also increases the risk of DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes, which leads to impaired cellular function. O 3 induces a variety of toxic effects in humans and experimental animals at concentrations that occur in many urban areas.
CO is a colorless and odorless gas, which is produced by fossil fuel, particularly when combustion is not appropriate, as in burning coal and wood. The affinity of CO to hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier in the body is about times greater than that of oxygen. Depending on CO concentration and length of exposure, mild to severe poisoning may occur.
Symptoms of CO poisoning may include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, and finally loss of consciousness. The symptoms are very similar to those of other illnesses, such as food poisoning or viral infections. Hypoxia, apoptosis, and ischemia are known mechanisms of underlying CO toxicity. Thus, the reduction in ambient CO can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction in predisposed persons. SO 2 is a colorless, highly reactive gas, which is considered as an important air pollutant.
It is mostly emitted from fossil fuel consumption, natural volcanic activities, and industrial processes. SO 2 is very harmful for plant life, animal, and human health.
People with lung disease, children, older people, and those who are more exposed to SO 2 are at higher risk of the skin and lung diseases. The major health concerns associated with exposure to high concentrations of SO 2 include respiratory irritation and dysfunction, and also aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease.
SO 2 is predominantly absorbed in the upper airways. As a sensory irritant, it can cause bronchospasm and mucus secretion in humans. The penetration of SO 2 into the lungs is greater during mouth breathing compared to nose breathing.
An increase in the airflow in deep, rapid breathing enhances penetration of the gas into the deeper lung.
Therefore, people who exercise in the polluted air would inhale more SO 2 and are likely to suffer from greater irritation. When SO 2 deposits along the airway, it dissolves into surface lining fluid as sulfite or bisulfite and is easily distributed throughout the body. It seems that the sulfite interacts with sensory receptors in the airways to cause local and centrally mediated bronchoconstriction.
Due to its solubility in water, SO 2 is responsible for acid rain formation and acidification of soils. SO 2 reduces the amount of oxygen in the water causing the death of marine species including both animals and plants.
Exposure to SO 2 can cause damages to the eyes lacrimation and corneal opacity , mucous membranes, the skin redness, and blisters , and respiratory tracts. Bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and acute airway obstruction are the most common clinical findings associated with exposure to SO 2. Nitrogen oxides are important ambient air pollutants which may increase the risk of respiratory infections.
They are deep lung irritants that can induce pulmonary edema if been inhaled at high levels. They are generally less toxic than O 3 , but NO 2 can pose clear toxicological problems. Exposures at 2. Although these levels may be high, epidemiologic studies demonstrate effects of NO 2 on respiratory infection rates in children. Coughing and wheezing are the most common complication of nitrogen oxides toxicity, but the eyes, nose or throat irritations, headache, dyspnea, chest pain, diaphoresis, fever, bronchospasm, and pulmonary edema may also occur.
In another report, it is suggested that the level of nitrogen oxide between 0. Pb or plumb is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in different industries. It is emitted from motor engines, particularly with those using petrol containing Pb tetraethyl. Smelters and battery plants, as well as irrigation water wells and wastewaters, are other emission sources of the Pb into the environment.
Because it is not readily excreted, Pb can also affect the kidneys, liver, nervous system, and the other organs. Pb absorption by the lungs depends on the particle size and concentration. Retained Pb absorption through alveoli is absorbed and induces toxicity. Pb is a powerful neurotoxicant, especially for infants and children as the high-risk groups.
Mental retardation, learning disabilities, impairment of memory, hyperactivity, and antisocial behaviors are of adverse effects of Pb in childhood.
Pb exposure is often chronic, without obvious symptoms. Pb may also replace calcium as a second messenger resulting in protein modification through various cellular processes including protein kinase activation or deactivation. Abdominal pain, anemia, aggression, constipation, headaches, irritability, loss of concentration and memory, reduced sensations, and sleep disorders are the most common symptoms of Pb poisoning.
Exposure to Pb is manifested with numerous problems, such as high blood pressure, infertility, digestive and renal dysfunctions, and muscle and joint pain. Other major air pollutants that are classified as carcinogen and mutagen compounds and are thought to be responsible for incidence and progression of cancer in human include VOCs such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene, PAHs such as acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and benzopyrene, and other organic pollutants such as dioxins, which are unwanted chemical pollutants that almost totally produced by industrial processes and human activity.
In Table 1 , the standard level of some conventional air pollutants is presented in which the values were defined as air quality standards that provide public welfare protection. Standard level of criteria air pollutants and their sources with health impact based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Air Pollution: Causes, Effects and Solution
One of the biggest problems concerning our daily lives is what we breathe and is it good for our lungs. Our air is filled with dangerous airborne particles that can cause many respiratory diseases. Air pollution can be caused naturally as well as man-made. This is one powerful force that can kill an entire civilization gradually and the worst part is that it affects the entire environment and the surrounding areas around it. Air pollution can be caused naturally by fine particles emitted out of coal and wood and this can pollute the air surrounding you.
The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise. The particulate forms are: PM10 and PM2. Atmospheric pollutants have a negative effect on the plants; they can have direct toxic effects, or indirectly by changing soil pH followed by solubilization of toxic salts of metals like aluminum. The particulate matters have a negative mechanical effect. They cover the leaf blade reducing light penetration and blocking the opening of stomata.
Causes, Effects, and Solutions for the Woes of Air Pollution on Human Life
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead.
Air pollution is one such form that refers to the contamination of the air, irrespective of indoors or outside. A physical, biological or chemical alteration to the air in the atmosphere can be termed as pollution. Read here more about 40 facts of air pollution. Another way of looking at air pollution could be any substance that holds the potential to hinder the atmosphere or the well being of the living beings surviving in it.
Jump to navigation. Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air that are detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole. The Clean Air Act authorizes the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA to protect public health by regulating the emissions of these harmful air pollutants. The NRDC has been a leading authority on this law since it was established in
Approach to the Problem
Я знаю. - Он улыбнулся. - Но на этот раз, - он вытянул левую руку так, чтобы она попала в камеру, и показал золотой ободок на безымянном пальце, - на этот раз у меня есть кольцо. ГЛАВА 116 - Читайте, мистер Беккер! - скомандовал Фонтейн. Джабба сидел весь потный, положив руки на клавиатуру.
Просто позор. - Могу я для вас что-нибудь сделать. Клушар задумался, польщенный оказанным вниманием. - Если честно… - Он вытянул шею и подвигал головой влево и вправо. - Мне не помешала бы еще одна подушка, если вас это не затруднит. - Нисколько.
И что особенно удачно - эту компанию меньше всего можно было заподозрить в том, что она состоит в сговоре с американским правительством. Токуген Нуматака воплощал старую Японию, его девиз - Лучше смерть, чем бесчестье. Он ненавидел американцев. Ненавидел американскую еду, американские нравы, но более всего ему было ненавистно то, что американцы железной хваткой держали мировой рынок компьютерных программ. У Стратмора был смелый план - создать всемирный стандарт шифрования с черным ходом для Агентства национальной безопасности. Он страстно желал разделить эту мечту со Сьюзан, осуществить ее с ней вместе, но знал, что это невозможно.
В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов. Но каждый раз, когда он предлагал перевод, дешифровщики в отчаянии качали головами. Очевидно, получалась бессмыслица. Желая помочь, Беккер обратил их внимание на то, что все показанные ему иероглифы объединяет нечто общее - они одновременно являются и иероглифами кандзи. В комнате тут же стало тихо.
Я не хотел тебя впутывать. - Я… понимаю, - тихо сказала она, все еще находясь под впечатлением его блистательного замысла. - Вы довольно искусный лжец. Стратмор засмеялся.
А что это за звездочка? - спросила Сьюзан.
Сьюзан ввела личный код из пяти знаков, и экран потемнел. Он будет оставаться в таком состоянии, пока она не вернется и вновь не введет пароль. Затем Сьюзан сунула ноги в туфли и последовала за коммандером.
Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался:. У Сьюзан имелся на это ответ. - Коммандер, - она снова попыталась настоять на своем, - нам нужно поговорить. - Минутку! - отрезал Стратмор, вопросительно глядя на Хейла.
Подумать. - Что вы имеете в виду.