Strauss And Corbin 1998 Basics Of Qualitative Research Pdf

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Grounded theory is a commonly used research methodology. There are three primary approaches to grounded theory in nursing research: those espoused by Glaser, Strauss and Corbin, and Charmaz.

Two articles in this launch issue of the journal explore the patient experience of haemophilia. To set the context, Martin Bedford explains the grounded theory method, and gives a brief overview of how and when it might be used in haemophilia research. Grounded theory is a research methodology used in the social sciences developed by Glaser and Strauss in [ 1 ] and subsequently refined by Glaser and others.

An Introduction to Grounded Theory with a Special Focus on Axial Coding and the Coding Paradigm

In this chapter we introduce grounded theory methodology and methods. In particular we clarify which research questions are appropriate for a grounded theory study and give an overview of the main techniques and procedures, such as the coding procedures, theoretical sensitivity, theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation.

We further discuss the role of theory within grounded theory and provide examples of studies in which the coding paradigm of grounded theory has been altered in order to be better suitable for applications in mathematics education.

In our exposition we mainly refer to grounded theory techniques and procedures according to Strauss and Corbin Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, , but also include other approaches in the discussion in order to point out the particularities of the approach by Strauss and Corbin. With their focus on theory development, they dissociate themselves from mere theory verification and the concomitant separation of the context of theory discovery and the context of theory justification, which was the prominent scientific method at that time.

With their approach to qualitative research, they also go beyond the mere description of phenomena. Originally, the book was written as a book for young researchers. One of its main intentions was to legitimate qualitative research Mey and Mruck Quite soon after their joint publication in , Glaser and Strauss developed grounded theory in different directions and started to argue their own understanding of grounded theory methodology and methods apart from each other in different ways, Glaser primarily on his own, Strauss also together with Juliet Corbin Glaser ; Strauss ; Strauss and Corbin Later, students of Glaser and Strauss further developed the different interpretations of grounded theory methodology so that today there is a second generation of grounded theory researchers, namely Juliet Corbin, Adele E.

Clarke, and Kathy Charmaz Morse et al. As those further developments of grounded theory resulted in different research methodologies, it has been suggested to talk about grounded theory methodologies in plural or at least to acknowledge that there are numerous modi operandi involving grounded theory methods in different fields of research as well as different national traditions Mey and Mruck In Germany, for instance, it is still most common to work with the grounded theory methodology version that was published by Strauss and Corbin in German translation from As this chapter is an introduction to grounded theory methodology and methods, our aim is to outline the common core of the different approaches to grounded theory.

Therefore, we give a short introduction to grounded theory as a methodology Sect. We further discuss an issue that lies at the heart of grounded theory, namely the role of theory within the methodology Sect. There, we also describe some examples of studies that used grounded theory as the main methodology, but took a specific stance to theory development in using the methodology.

This section provides a short overview of grounded theory as a methodology. We aim to answer two questions: 1. What is a grounded theory? What kind of research questions are appropriate for a grounded theory study? There is no simple answer to this question as the term grounded theory adheres to different research elements. In the first place, grounded theory is a methodology, which is characterized by the iterative process and the interrelatedness of planning, data collection, data analysis, and theory development.

Grounded theory further provides a particular set of systematic methods, which support abstraction from the data in order to develop a theory that is grounded in the empirical data. These methods include different coding procedures, which are based on the method of constant comparison.

New data are gathered continuously and new cases are included in the analysis based on their potential contribution to the further development and refinement of the evolving theory. This sampling method is called theoretical sampling. The iterative process of data collection according to theoretical sampling, data analysis, and theory development is continued until new data do not contribute any longer to a substantial development of the theory, i.

The theory that is the product of this process is also referred to as grounded theory. The quality of a grounded theory is not evaluated according to the standard criteria of test theory, i.

According to the usual scientific procedure, the research question is at the outset of any scientific endeavour. It is the essence of what the researcher wants to know. The overall purpose of the study is to find an answer to the research question. Methodology and related methods are but a vehicle to find the possibly best answer to the research question. Ideally, it should be the research question that determines the methodology and not vice versa.

Thus, it is important to ask what kind of research questions are appropriate for a grounded theory study. The character of the research question will influence the methodology and the choice of methods. We will try to characterize the kind of questions to which grounded theory could probably provide a good answer. Due to the origins of grounded theory in the social sciences, the main epistemological interest lies in predicting and explaining behavior in social interaction.

Thus, Strauss and Corbin stress the orientation towards action and processes of grounded theory research questions. The methods and techniques of grounded theory make use of different elements: some relate to the collection, some to the evaluation of data, and some refer to the research process. The following section gives a short introduction to the most important methods and techniques to make the start of working with grounded theory easier for a newcomer to this vast field.

A more detailed description of the procedures and techniques can be found in the original literature describing grounded theory e. Note that technical terms and procedures may differ slightly when adhering to literature from different traditions of grounded theory.

Even within one tradition of grounded theory, the methodology may also change over time see Sect. To gain a more practical idea about the application of grounded theory, we suggest looking at Vollstedt for an example of the application of grounded theory methods in an international comparative study in mathematics education carried out in Germany and Hong Kong.

When starting to work with grounded theory, there is no fixed theory at hand with which to evaluate the data. On the contrary, the researcher moves into an open field of study with many unclear aspects.

The longer the researcher will have worked in this field, the clearer those unclear aspects will hopefully become.

In order to make sense of the data, an important ability of the researcher is theoretical sensitivity. The notion of theoretical sensitivity is closely linked to grounded theory and Glaser even devoted a whole book to this issue. They further sum up a number of single abilities that characterize the theoretical sensitivity of a researcher. The opinions about how a researcher might develop theoretical sensitivity differ between the two founders of grounded theory and are in fact one of the main differences between their approaches.

These are questioning, analyzing single words, phrases or sentences, and comparing, thus techniques, which pervade grounded theory in general. One characteristic of grounded theory is that data collection, data analysis, and theory development are not successive steps in the research procedure but are intertwined and interdependent.

Thus, action in terms of data collection and reflexion in terms of data analysis and theory development always alternate. Data collection and analysis initialize the process of theory development.

Further cycles of data collection and analysis are guided by theoretical sampling and serve to specify the research focus on the one hand, and to develop hypotheses and theory on the other. Theoretical sampling denotes a cumulative sampling method, in which the selection of new cases that are to be included in the analysis is guided by the unfolding theory.

The authors point out that the goal of theoretical sampling might vary throughout the process of theory development. In the beginning of the process, cases are selected, because they are likely to enable the discovery of new relevant concepts.

Later on, cases are selected because they are likely to contribute to the differentiation, elaboration, consolidation, and validation of categories in terms of their properties, their dimensions, or their interrelations see the next section for the development of concepts and categories.

Theoretical sampling and the development of theory are continued until theoretical saturation is achieved, i. The relations between the categories are well developed and validated Strauss and Corbin The overarching goal of data analysis in the grounded theory methodology is theory development.

In order to achieve this goal, the collected data are evaluated by applying different ways of coding as the core process. Coding in grounded theory methodology is a process of conceptual abstraction by assigning general concepts codes to singular incidences in the data.

After having collected some not necessarily all data, the evaluation process may begin. Depending on which line of grounded theory methodology one follows, the different kinds of coding that are applied may vary in nomenclature as well as procedures Glaser ; Mey and Mruck ; Strauss and Corbin ; Teppo Glaser discriminates between substantive coding, which consists of open and selective coding, and theoretical coding.

In contrast, Strauss and Corbin differentiate between three kinds of coding procedures that are needed to develop a grounded theory from the data: open, axial, and selective coding. These procedures are not to be misunderstood as being precise procedures that are easily distinguishable. On the contrary, the procedures are neither clear-cut, nor do they easily define phases that chronologically come one after the other. They embody rather different ways of working with the data that can be combined with each other and between which the researcher can move back and forth if needed Mey and Mruck The following sections give a brief overview of open, axial, and selective coding following Strauss and Corbin Although the different procedures of coding do not occur in a strict sequence, open coding is usually the first approach to the data.

Core elements of open coding are posing sensitizing questions and constantly comparing data and codes. Open coding is the part of data analysis that focuses on the conceptualisation and categorisation of phenomena through an intensive analysis of the data. In this first step of open coding, the data are broken up into smaller parts that are deeply analysed. The aim of this analysis is to grasp the core idea of each part and to develop a code to describe it.

Open codes can be either developed in vivo, i. In a second step then, these smaller analytical parts are compared with respect to similarities and differences. Similar parts can be labelled with the same code. Strauss and Corbin use the terms concept and category to denote a phenomenon that is categorized and conceptualized by assigning it to one code concept or concepts of higher order category. This means that the concepts developed are then related to other concepts so that categories of a higher order emerge so that different dimensions of the category can be described.

During the process of developing the dimensions of categories, theoretically relevant characteristics of every category are determined and explicated in the code descriptions Mey and Mruck Which roles do they embody, or which ones are assigned to them? How long? All those resources are used in a creative manner of free association Strauss and Corbin to interpret the data and to develop codes to describe the interpretation found.

To develop a grounded theory, the emerging relationships between the elaborated concepts need to be integrated into an overarching framework with one core category. Glaser calls this process theoretical coding ; Strauss and Corbin differentiate between axial coding and selective coding , but themselves emphasize that there is not much of a difference, except at the level of abstraction.

According to Strauss and Corbin , axial coding is needed to investigate the relationships between concepts and categories that have been developed in the open coding process. As people act and interact with other people, they possess different strategies to handle their interpretations of the situations in which they are involved. Their acting as well as the pursuit of their strategies have consequences. These perspectives on the data help to detect relations between concepts and categories in order to relate them on a meta level.

Strauss and Corbin perceive the coding paradigm as an obligatory element of a grounded theory: if the coding paradigm was not used in theory development, the theory would miss density and precision.

One of the most difficult questions for a researcher new to the field of grounded theory is as follows: How does the coding paradigm work? After having broken up the data in the process of open coding, they are joined together in a new way in the process of axial coding as links are worked out between a category and its subcategories.

The focus of axial coding is on a category the phenomenon in relation to the following aspects.

Grounded theory

Jump to navigation. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research approach that attempts to develop theories of understanding based on data from the real world. Unlike some other forms of qualitative inquiry, grounded theory attempts to go beyond rich description which it also strives for to an explanation of the phenomena of interest. The second key word is grounded. For example, if one wished to derive a grounded theory about the effects of childhood abuse on adult functioning, one would gather many kinds of data from persons who had grown up amid child abuse, and would build the theory of how it affects adult development on the information obtained from those people. The primary tools of discovery are interviews and observations. However, grounded theory goes beyond the descriptive and interpretive goals and is aimed at building theories.


Introduction -- Practical considerations -- Prelude to analysis -- Strategies for A Review of Corbin and Strauss' Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and.


An Introduction to Grounded Theory with a Special Focus on Axial Coding and the Coding Paradigm

Grounded theory is a systematic methodology that has been largely, but not exclusively, applied to qualitative research conducted by social scientists. The methodology involves the construction of hypotheses and theories through the collecting and analysis of data. The methodology contrasts with the hypothetico-deductive model used in traditional scientific research. A study based on grounded theory is likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data. As researchers review the data collected, ideas or concepts become apparent to the researchers.

An introduction to grounded theory

Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Corbin and A. Corbin , A. Strauss Published Sociology, Computer Science.

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A reflection on the application of grounded theory in the exploration of the experiences of informal carers. School of Nursing, University of the Western Cape. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the application of a qualitative research method that presents novice researchers with a variety of challenges. It is suggested that prospective users of the grounded theory method should seek guidance from experts in the field.

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5 Comments

  1. Laurencio R. 23.12.2020 at 00:42

    PDF | This is a review of the 3rd edition of Corbin and Strauss' Basics of Qualitative Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for data saturation and can be a part of the iterative process (Rennie, ).

  2. Merle C. 27.12.2020 at 08:39

    Basics Of Qualitative Research: Techniques And Procedures For Developing Grounded Theory. January Anselm L. Strauss · Juliet M.

  3. Minettosu 27.12.2020 at 21:00

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  4. Christopher N. 28.12.2020 at 01:26

    In this chapter we introduce grounded theory methodology and methods.

  5. Abby H. 30.12.2020 at 00:00

    S eb ddc: /.7/ 2 subject: Social sciences--Statistical methods, The first edition of Basics of Qualitative Research (Strauss & Corbin, ) arose.