Frederick Douglass Pictures And Progress Pdf
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- Pictures and Progress: Early Photography and the Making of African American Identity
- Degrees of Exposure: Frederick Douglass, Daguerreotypes, and Representations of Freedom
- Frederick Douglass
Pictures and Progress: Early Photography and the Making of African American Identity
Copyright National Humanities Center, In the s abolition was not a widely embraced movement in the United States.
It was considered radical, extreme, and dangerous. Frederick Douglass, ca , Metropolitan Museum of Art. Grades CCR complexity band.
For more information on text complexity see these resources from achievethecore. Click here for standards and skills for this lesson. In addition to making historical points about nineteenth-century attitudes toward slavery, race, and abolition, you can use this speech to teach formal rhetoric.
We have divided the address into four sections according to the function of each one. This division follows the classic structure of argumentative writing:. We have included notes that explain the function of each section as well as questions that invite discussion of the ways in which Douglass deploys rhetoric to make his case.
This lesson features five interactive activities, which can be accessed by clicking on this icon. The first explores the subtle way in which Douglass compares the patriots of with the abolitionists of The second challenges students to determine how Douglass supports his thesis. The third focuses on his use of syllogistic reasoning, while the fourth examines how he makes his case through emotion and the fifth through analogy.
We recommend assigning the entire text. Terms that appear in blue are defined on hover and in a printable glossary on the last page of the classroom version. The student worksheet also includes links to the activities, indicated by this icon. This is a long lesson. We recommend dividing students into groups and assigning each group a set of paragraphs to analyze. It was reported and reprinted in Northern newspapers and was published and sold as a forty-page pamphlet within weeks of its delivery.
The to people who heard Douglass speak were generally sympathetic to his remarks. Even Northerners who were anti-slavery were not necessarily pro-abolition.
Many were content to let Southerners continue to hold slaves, a right they believed was upheld by the Constitution. They simply did not want to slavery to spread to areas where it did not exist. In this Independence Day oration, Douglass sought to persuade those people to embrace what was then considered the extreme position of abolition.
He also sought to change minds about the abilities and intelligence of African Americans. In many, if not most, white Americans believed that African Americans were inferior, indeed, less than fully human. Douglass tries to dispel these notions through an impressive display of liberal learning. His speech gives ample evidence of knowledge of rhetoric, history, literature, religion, economics, poetry, music, law, even advances in technology.
What are introductions supposed to do? Introductions can inform listeners of the subject or the purpose of a speech, attempt to convince them that a topic is important and worthy of their attention, or ingratiate a speaker with the audience.
What does Douglass try to do in this introduction? Cite evidence from the text to support your answer. Because his audience is familiar with the subject matter of Fourth of July speeches and because it recognizes the importance of the occasion, in his introduction Douglass does not have to sketch out his topic or argue for its significance. Instead, he sets out to ingratiate himself with his listeners. He praises their importance and claims to be humbled by their stature. He calls attention to the rhetorical conventions of introductions to signal to his audience that in this case they do not apply.
He seeks to win their trust by assuring them he is sincere. As he reminds his audience in the final paragraph of the introduction, he is an escaped slave. By calling attention to the fact that a slave has been invited to speak on freedom, he employs irony, a strategy he will use throughout the speech to emphasize certain themes.
What are they? Cite specific instances of them in the text. How can you account for them? He is walking a tightrope. He seeks at once to ingratiate himself with a display of humility while at the same time establishing his authority as a speaker and justifying his presence on the platform.
What expectations do you think a white audience would have for a black speaker in ? How does Douglass address these expectations in his introduction? In this introduction Douglass is doing more than simply presenting himself to his audience. When he raises the topic of slavery in the third paragraph, he brings into his text a topic which the color of his skin has already brought into Corinthian Hall, racism.
Even among some abolitionists there existed the strong prejudice that African Americans were inferior, indeed, something less than fully human. President, Friends and Fellow Citizens: He who could address this audience without a quailing sensation, has stronger nerves than I have. I do not remember ever to have appeared as a speaker before any assembly more shrinkingly, nor with greater distrust of my ability, than I do this day.
A feeling has crept over me, quite unfavorable to the exercise of my limited powers of speech. The task before me is one which requires much previous thought and study for its proper performance.
I know that apologies of this sort are generally considered flat and unmeaning. I trust, however, that mine will not be so considered.
Should I seem at ease, my appearance would much misrepresent me. The little experience I have had in addressing public meetings, in country schoolhouses, avails me nothing on the present occasion. The papers and placards say, that I am to deliver a 4th [of] July oration.
This certainly sounds large , and out of the common way, for it is true that I have often had the privilege to speak in this beautiful Hall, and to address many who now honor me with their presence. But neither their familiar faces, nor the perfect gage I think I have of Corinthian Hall, seems to free me from embarrassment.
The fact is, ladies and gentlemen, the distance between this platform and the slave plantation, from which I escaped, is considerable — and the difficulties to be overcome in getting from the latter to the former, are by no means slight.
That I am here today is, to me, a matter of astonishment as well as of gratitude. You will not, therefore, be surprised, if in what I have to say, I evince no elaborate preparation, nor grace my speech with any high sounding exordium. With little experience and with less learning, I have been able to throw my thoughts hastily and imperfectly together; and trusting to your patient and generous indulgence, I will proceed to lay them before you.
Note: Students are likely to be familiar with the function of an introduction in a speech but less so with the function of the narrative section. You might explain that in an address commemorating an event, speakers often invoke the event by offering a narration of it. This reminds the audience why they are gathered together, and it offers speakers the opportunity to draw inspiration for the future from the event.
But it also performs two other important functions. Moreover, it enshrines radical resistance to government policy and revolution in the face of bondage as venerated parts of the mainstream American political tradition. He takes hope from the fact that the country is young, only seventy-six years old. Its destiny and character are not fixed. Thus it may yet change and abandon slavery. If America permits slavery to become a deep and permanent part of its life, the nation might benefit from it, or it might be destroyed by it, or it could be morally drained by it.
In the end the metaphor is a warning about what might happen if change does not happen soon. Why would both groups be sadder if the nation were older? In this part of his speech Douglass takes pains to equate the founding patriots with contemporary anti-slavery reformers. He begins to make that equation here. The nation, Douglass tells his audience, is still young, not set in its way, and thus more susceptible to change.
By inference, were it older, it would be more set in its ways, and the reformer who would want to change those ways, would be sad. But why would a patriot be sad?
Were the nation to mature with the injustice of slavery deeply entrenched in it, America would betray the ideals of the Revolution, and thus the patriot would be sad. This, for the purpose of this celebration, is the 4th of July.
It is the birthday of your National Independence, and of your political freedom. This, to you, is what the Passover was to the emancipated people of God. It carries your minds back to the day, and to the act of your great deliverance ; and to the signs, and to the wonders, associated with that act, and that day. This celebration also marks the beginning of another year of your national life; and reminds you that the Republic of America is now 76 years old. I am glad, fellow-citizens, that your nation is so young.
Seventy-six years, though a good old age for a man, is but a mere speck in the life of a nation. Three score years and ten is the allotted time for individual men; but nations number their years by thousands. According to this fact, you are, even now, only in the beginning of your national career, still lingering in the period of childhood. I repeat, I am glad this is so. There is hope in the thought, and hope is much needed, under the dark clouds which lower above the horizon.
The eye of the reformer is met with angry flashes, portending disastrous times; but his heart may well beat lighter at the thought that America is young, and that she [America] is still in the impressible stage of her existence. May he not hope that high lessons of wisdom, of justice and of truth, will yet give direction to her destiny?
Its future might be shrouded in gloom, and the hope of its prophets go out in sorrow. There is consolation in the thought that America is young. Great streams are not easily turned from channels, worn deep in the course of ages.
Degrees of Exposure: Frederick Douglass, Daguerreotypes, and Representations of Freedom
Copyright National Humanities Center, In the s abolition was not a widely embraced movement in the United States. It was considered radical, extreme, and dangerous. Frederick Douglass, ca , Metropolitan Museum of Art. Grades CCR complexity band. For more information on text complexity see these resources from achievethecore. Click here for standards and skills for this lesson.
KeyWords | Frederick Douglass, photography, African American culture, to the text of a lecture titled “Pictures and Progress” (Blassingame –73). That text.
Literary History 14, no. Chapter 9 was previously published Frontispiece: Portrait of a woman as Looking at Ones Self through with earring. Tintype, circa s; the Eyes of Others: W. Du detail. Wallace and Shawn Michelle Smith1.
Michael A. Chaney, Cheryl Finley, P. Wallace and Shawn Michelle Smith pp. Gabrielle Foreman pp. Wallace pp.
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