Listening Attitudes Principles And Skills Pdf
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Listening takes an experiential approach to listening instruction, providing extensive supplemental applications and cases within the context of a sound theoretical framework. The book encourages readers to view listening as a process involving six interrelated components.
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This words has been used 49 times in the Holy Scripture, and is symbolic of divine completeness, its true meaning is finality. Moses listened to the voice of God and obeyed Him, but the Lord also said Pharaoh will not listen to you. And it happened just like that, Pharaoh did not listen and was doomed. This shows that listening has two angles, one is when one listens to the good things being said, and the other is not listening to it.
Listening is a make or break factor. The Greek philosopher Epictetus may have been the first person to notice that humans were created with two ears, but only one tongue, so that humans may listen twice as much as they speak King, , p. In an article published in the Huffingtonpost the famous listening expert Paul Sacco, Ph. A lot of us are focused on the mechanics of listening, eye contact, nodding your head but for good listeners, there's a naturalness to that behavior that we should all aspire to.
In addition to grammatical competence, listeners also rely on other types of knowledge as they perform a listening comprehension process. One is sociocultural competence, which is the listeners' degree of familiarity with the sociocultural content of the message and knowledge of the social as well as cultural expectations of native speakers of the language. Another is strategic competence, which is listeners' ability to guess meanings of unfamiliar words heard and to use strategies to compensate for their missing knowledge.
To sum up listening is an active process of attaching meaning to the speech sounds. As a listener performs a variety of tasks in a comprehension process, he or she has to rely upon various types of knowledge such as grammatical knowledge and sociocultural understanding. Researchers have outlined the differences between the spoken language and the written language.
These following differences also offer insights into the nature of listening and reading tasks. Written language usually appears in a sentence while spoken discourse is generally delivered as a clause at a time Richards, Written language tends to be planned and organized while spoken discourse is generally not planned and not well-organized Richards, Clearly, the general purpose of listening is to comprehend a message Chastain, ; Lund, Since the listener must understand the message as it is presented, effective listening requires the ability to organize and remember what is presented.
Listening then involves giving conscious attention to the sounds for the purpose of gaining meaning. Listening is an important behavior; however, it should also be considered a leadership quality. Both servant leadership and transformational leadership seek to earn respect and trust by developing relationships, and relationships develop though shared dialogue. Research has focused on developing listening as a skill required for effective leadership. Communication scholars cannot agree on a single definition for listening, though, there are similar elements scholars agree should be included in this definition.
These five elements include perception, attention, interpretation, remembering and responding. These common elements have been a part of the definition of listening for over 60 years Janusik, , p.
Since listening occurs in different settings, a single definition for listening is inadequate. For example, listening in a conversation will require a response; however when listening to a television program, no response is required.
Listening discriminatively can be aural or visual and is basic to any other type of listening. This allows a listener to perceive and identify sounds in the environment and then use these sounds to adapt to the environment Wolvin, , p.
Listening comprehensively is listening for the understanding of the message and its variables including memory, concentration and vocabulary Wolvin, p. The third type of listening is therapeutic listening and scholars indicate everyone has a need for this type of listener at some point in his or her life.
Specific skills for this empathic form of listening include giving attention, being present, demonstrating eye contact, facial expression, touching, silence and demonstrating empathy Listening Process Critical listening is listening to comprehend and evaluate the message.
Critical listening is used in leadership as these skills appear to sharpen with maturity, while determining acceptance or rejection of a message. It is important to be reminded that critical does not mean negative, but rather is defined by the purpose and goals of listening.
The listening leader needs to connect to what was heard and experienced, while searching for the value it has in life. At this point, listening becomes a deliberate decision. Human Brain and Schemas While listening, not only is attending important; so is perception. Cognitive psychologists include the schema theory when processing information Wolvin, b, pp. The schemata in a brain are mental representations of knowledge. Schemas are ways of organizing information in a brain to allow the interpretation and remembering of information.
Schemas make sense of new and incoming information and assist in identifying information that should be stored or forgotten Brownell, a, p.
The schemata stored in long term memory, aids recalling information. As a result, as schema is built, there is more availability for storage which ultimately aids memory. The behavioral aspect of listening indicates a listener will control the amount of information received, process it via cognitive and schemata influences, and ultimately have the last words regarding the message. By understanding the listening process, the goal of shared meaning will have a greater possibility of achievement.
After listening, effective speaking occurs through learned and improved behaviors. Brownell, , p. This aspect will impact the leadership of a listener. Listening is most effective when it is considered to be a connection to others, circular in nature, a give-and-take relationship. Through listening, relationships develop, feedback is offered and leaders are formed.
Leadership Just as communication is about people, so too is leadership. Barge posits that leadership is best explained by communication skills. Stop talking and start listening. Being a leader should not be viewed as a license to increase the volume of rhetoric. Rather astute leaders know there is far more to be gained by surrendering the floor than by dominating it.
Often most leaders fail to understand that the effective communication is not just conveying message, but engaging, and for this listening is required. Being heard is useless without hearing.
Communication means to understand before wishing to be understood. When someone amongst us arrives at point in his life when he begins to understand that wisdom does not come from lip flapping but by removing his ear wax, then he has turned a skilled communicator. If such distractions are not present then you can discern the true meaning behind spoken words. Leaders have to listen to their peers, stakeholders, friends, competitors, customers, seniors and juniors, subordinates and last but not the least, the members of family.
Even using Tweets or messages on Facebook or LinkedIn, it is better not to push out but to elicit feedback this helps in becoming popular with anyone you interact with. You must have been a part of some board meeting and encountered the smartest fellow in the conference hall. Who was that fellow? Think and you will get the answer, because it was not the fellow who was doing all the talking but the one who just intervened with a few engaging questions and then kept listening.
Leaders listen to their personnel and build on their suggestions. They have the ability to draw out the best in their subordinates and then add to it. Axley , once asked thousands of managers during a fifteen year period, can you tell me the percentage of your job activities which involves communicating or communication of some sort?
His finding were that only rarely does anyone report that less than the majority of their time is spent in communication activities. That is strong testimony to the importance of listening in leaders. By making use of this technique you motivate the other person to speak without being interrupted and thus builds a rapport between you and the other party. Since no record of ethnicity was asked, this could represent the cultural diversity regarding eye contact.
Similarly facial expressions are important in nonverbal communication, and so too is body movement and gestures. A response that demonstrates attention, a voice that projects an appropriate tone and nonverbal actions that match the verbal.
Listen up. New York: St. Brownell, J. Listening: Attitudes, principles, and skills 4th ed. Caputo, J. Communicating effectively: Linking thought and expression. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt. Chastain, K. Testing listening comprehension tests. De Pree, M. Leadership is an art. New York: Doubleday Hackman, M. Teaching leadership from a communication perspective. Journal of NW Communication Association, 22,
Listening for Success
Just as you hope others are attentive to your speech, it is important to know how to listen ethically—in effort to show respect to other speakers. Jordan stood to give his presentation to the class. He knew he was knowledgeable about his chosen topic, the Chicago Bears football team, and had practiced for days, but public speaking always gave him anxiety. He asked for a show of hands during his attention getter, and only a few people acknowledged him. Two girls on the right side were passing a note back and forth. As we can see from the example above, communicating is not a one-way street.
Listening takes an experiential approach to listening instruction, providing extensive supplemental applications and cases within the context of a sound theoretical framework. The book encourages readers to view listening as a process involving six interrelated components. Each component is developed along the parallel dimensions of theory and skill building. Within the unifying theoretical framework of the HURIER model, readers not only develop an understanding of the listening process, they also acquire specific, observable listening skills. This behavioral approach enables readers to increase their listening effectiveness while developing an understanding of listening-related research and theory. Eastern Seas: A narrative of the voyage of H. Developer OwnsLicense Grant Clause One common model-much loved by developers-is to make the developer owner of all intellectual property rights.
Listening Attitudes, Principles, and Skills
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Al-Shaboul, Y. Strategy use by English-major Jordanian undergraduates. The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 27 1 , Bacon-Smith, C.