Introduction To Fibre Optics By Ghatak And Thyagarajan Pdf
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- Introduction To Fiber Optics By Ajoy Ghatak & K. Thyagarajan.pdf
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Agrawal, Fiber optic communication systems, 3rd. Wiley, I. Kaminow and T.
THY A GAR A JAN Introduction to fiber optics Recent advances in the development of low-loss optical f bers have revolutionized the field of telecommunications, and fiber-based networks form a key part of international communication systems. This comprehensive book provides an introduction to the physical principles of optical fibers and discusses in detail their use in modern optical communication systems and sensor technology. The authors begin by setting out the basic propagation characteristics of singlemode and rnultimode optical fibers. In later chapters they cover optical sources such as laser diodes , optical detectors, and fiber optic communication system design. They also treat a wide variety of related topics such as doped fiber amplifiers, soliton propagation, dispersion compensation, fiber Bragg gratings and fiber sensors.
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Search inside document. In later chapters they cover optical sources such as, laser diodes , optical detectors, and fiber optic communication system design. It will be an ideal textbook tor undergraduate or graduate students taking courses in optical fiber communications, photonics, or optoelectronics. Thyagarajan isa professor of physics atthe Indian Institute of Technology.
New Delhi. He received his B. Diffraction of a Gaussian beam sic characteristics of the optical fiber 3. Radiative losses 4 Ray paths and pulse dispersion in planar optical waveguides 4.
Pulse dispersion in a planar step index waveguide 4. Derivation of group velocity 6. TE modes of a symmetric step index planar waveguide 7. Scalar modes in the weakly guiding approximation 8. Modal analysis for a step index fiber 8.
Splice loss 8. Modal analysis of a parabolic index fiber 9. The LPi, modes 9. Expressions for group delay and waveguide dispersion Empirical formula for step index fibers Laser fundamentals Laser oscillation Semiconductor laser: basies Output spectrum Radiation pattern PIN photodetector Speed of response Thermal noise Rise time budgeting Dispersion limit Optical fiber amplifiers Energy levels of erbium ions in silica matrix Amplifier modeling Dispersion compensation Propagation in presence of dispersion only Wavelength flattened couplers Other polished fiber half-block devices Mach-Zehnder interferometric sensor Current sensors General experimental considerations Measurement of attenuation Measurement of NA Multimode reference technique Magneto optic modulation General ease The ray equation in cartesian coordinates and its solutions The optical Lagrangian and the ray equation The ray invariant A for a waveguide Helical ray Ray paths and their classification in optical fibers, Exact ray paths in a parabolic index fiber Leaky structures and quasimodes The general procedure Indeed, the birth of optical fiber communications coincided with the fabrication of low-loss optical fibers and operation of room tempera- ture semiconductor lasers in Since then, the scientific and technological progress in the field has been so phenomenal that optical fiber communication systems find themselves already in the fifth generation within a span of about 25 years.
Broadband optical fiber amplifiers coupled with wavelength division multiplexing techniques and soliton communication systems are some of the very important developments that have taken place in the past few years, which are already revolutionizing the field of fiber optics. Although the major appli- cation of optical fibers has been in the area of telecommunications, many new related areas such as fiber optic sensors, fiber optic devices and components, and integrated optics have witnessed considerable growth, In addition, optical fibers allow us to perform many interesting and simple experiments permitting us to understand basic physical principles.
With the all-pervading applications of optical fibers, many educational in- stitutions have started courses on fiber optics. The material presented here and also the associated experiments have been very successfully used in various summer and winter schools in the area of fiber optics conducted by our Institute.
It was felt that there is a need today of a textbook at the undergraduate level covering the field from the basic concepts to the very recent advances, including various applications of this exciting field.
The book also contains many solved and unsolved problems, some of which will give the reader a greater feel for numbers while the others are expected to help in a greater understanding of the concepts developed in the book. We would greatly appreciate receiving suggestions for further improvement of the book. We would also be very grateful if any errors in the book are pointed out to us. The technological advances ever since the invention of the laser in have indeed revolutionized the area of telecommunication and networking.
The availability of the laser, which is a coherent source of light waves, presented communication engineers with a suitable carrier wave capable of carrying enormously large amounts of information compared with radiowaves and microwaves.
A typical lightwave communication system consists of a lightwave trans- mitter, which is usually a semiconductor laser diode emitting in the invisible infrared region of the optical spectrum with associated electronics for mod- ulating it with the signals; a transmission channel — namely, the optical fiber to carry the modulated light beam; and finally, a receiver, which consists of an optical detector and associated electronics for retrieving the signal see ure 1.
The information — that is, the signal to be transmitted — is usually coded into a digital stream of light pulses by modulating the laser diode. These optical pulses then travel through the optical fiber in the form of guided waves and are received by the optical detector from which the signal is then decoded and retrieved. At the heart of a lightwave communication system is the optical fiber, which acts as the transmission channel carrying the light beam loaded with informa- tion. Itconsists of a dielectric core usually doped silica of high refractive index surrounded by a lower refractive index cladding see Figure 1.
Guidance of light through the optical fiber takes place by the phenomenon of total internal reflection. Sending the information-loaded light beams through optical fibers instead of through the open atmosphere protects the light beam from atmospheric uncertainties such as rain, fog, pollution, and so forth. One of the key elements in the fiber optics revolution has been the dramatic, improvement in the transmission characteristics of optical fibers.
These include the attenuation of the light beam as well as the distortion in the optical signals as they race through the optical fiber. Figure 1. Optical fibers with typical losses in the range of 0. A loss figure of 0. Most currently installed systems are based on communication at a nm optical window of trans- mission. The choice of this wavelength was dictated by the fact that around an operating wavelength of nm the optical pulses propagate through a con- ventional single-mode fiber with almost no pulse broadening.
This is necessary either because the light pulses have become attenuated, and hence the signal levels have fallen below the detectable level, or because the spreading of the pulses has resulted in an overlapping of adjacent pulses leading to a loss of information.
Until now this regeneration had to be achieved by first converting the optical signals into electrical signals, regenerating the signals electrically, and then once again converting the elec trical signals into optical signals by modulating another semiconductor laser: such devices are called regenerators.
Recent developments in optical amplifiers based on erbium. Because of amplification in the optical domain itself, such systems are not limited by the speed of the electronic circuitry and indeed can amplify multiple signals transmitted via different wavelengths simultaneously. For example, Figure 1. Indeed, the wavelength band of nm around nm, of the low-loss window of silica-based optical fibers from t0 nm corresponds to 12, GHz of bandwidth.
Introduction To Fiber Optics By Ajoy Ghatak & K. Thyagarajan.pdf
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THY A GAR A JAN Introduction to fiber optics Recent advances in the development of low-loss optical f bers have revolutionized the field of telecommunications, and fiber-based networks form a key part of international communication systems. This comprehensive book provides an introduction to the physical principles of optical fibers and discusses in detail their use in modern optical communication systems and sensor technology. The authors begin by setting out the basic propagation characteristics of singlemode and rnultimode optical fibers. In later chapters they cover optical sources such as laser diodes , optical detectors, and fiber optic communication system design.
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