Physics Electricity And Magnetism Notes Pdf

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An electric current produces a magnetic field. It is due to a magnetic field, which is caused by moving electrically charged particles or is inherent in magnetic objects such as a magnet.

These notes will help you understand Electricity and Magnetism very easily. Electric Force and Coulomb's Law Coulomb's law or Coulomb's inverse-square law is a law of physics describing the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles… read more and download. Electric Field An electric field is the region of space surrounding electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields… read more and download. Gauss's Law In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field… read more and download. Electric Potential The electric potential at a point is equal to the electric potential energy of a charged particle at that location divided by the charge of the particle… read more and download.

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Course: Physics 1 Module 1: Electricity and Magnetism. Venus Perez. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper.

Electromagnetic concepts and law of conservation of electric charge 1. Electromagnetic concepts 2. Law of conservation of electric charge 4. Electric current 1. Electric current 2. Current density 4. Magnetic interaction 2. Magnetic intensity 1. Magnetic intensity 2. Relationship between magnetic intensity and magnetic induction 4. Electromagnetic induction 1.

Magnetic flux 2. Magnetic energy. Energy stored in a magnetic field 2. When placed in a magnetic field, magnetic dipoles tend to align their axes parallel to the magnetic field. Magnetic fields surround and are created by electric currents, magnetic dipoles, and changing electric fields. Magnetic fields also have their own energy, with an energy density proportional to the square of the field magnitude.

A pure electric field in one reference frame will be viewed as a combination of both an electric field and a magnetic field in a moving reference frame. Together, the electric and magnetic fields make up the electromagnetic field, which is best known for underlying light and other electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetism is essentially the foundation for all of electrical engineering. We use electromagnets to generate electricity, store memory on our computers, generate pictures on a television screen, diagnose illnesses, and in just about every other aspect of our lives that depends on electricity. We already know that a charge in motion creates a current. With electricity, there are positive and negative charges. With magnetism, there are north and south poles.

Similar to charges, like magnetic poles repel each other, while unlike poles attract. In magnetism, north and south poles are always found in pairs.

Single magnetic poles, known as magnetic monopoles, have been proposed theoretically, but a magnetic monopole has never been observed. Again, there is a difference. While electric field lines begin on positive charges and end on negative charges, magnetic field lines are closed loops, extending from the south pole to the north pole and back again or, equivalently, from the north pole to the south pole and back again.

With a typical bar magnet, for example, the field goes from the north pole to the south pole outside the magnet, and back from south to north inside the magnet. So do magnetic fields, but from moving charges, or currents, which are simply a whole bunch of moving charges. In a permanent magnet, the magnetic field comes from the motion of the electrons inside the material, or, more precisely, from something called the electron spin.

The electron spin is a bit like the Earth spinning on its axis. The electric field at a particular point is in the direction of the force a positive charge would experience if it were placed at that point.

The magnetic field at a point is in the direction of the force a north pole of a magnet would experience if it were placed there. In other words, the north pole of a compass points in the direction of the magnetic field that exerts a force on the compass.

The SI unit is the tesla T. This involves generating a voltage an induced electromotive force by changing the magnetic field that passes through a coil of wire. An electric current creates a magnetic field, and a magnetic field, when it changes, creates a voltage. The discovery of this link led to the invention of transformer, electric motor, and generator.

It also explained what light is and led to the invention of radio. Charge comes in multiples of an indivisible unit of charge, represented by the letter e. In other words, charge comes in multiples of the charge on the electron or the proton. These things have the same size charge, but the sign is different.

The amount of electric charge is only available in discrete units. These discrete units are exactly equal to the amount of electric charge that is found on the electron or the proton. Other particles positrons, for example also carry charge in multiples of the electronic charge.

This law is inherent to all processes known to physics. The quantity of electric charge of an isolated system is always conserved. Most things are electrically neutral; they have equal amounts of positive and negative charge. If this was not the case, the world we live in would be a much stranger place. We also have a lot of control over how things get charged. This is because we can choose the appropriate material to use in a given situation.

They are called insulators. Charge does not flow nearly as easily through insulators as it does through conductors; that is why wires you plug into a wall socket are covered with a protective rubber coating. Charge flows along the wire, but not through the coating to you. The difference between them is that in conductors, the outermost electrons in the atoms are so loosely bound to their atoms that they are free to travel around.

In insulators, on the other hand, the electrons are much more tightly bound to their atoms, and are not free to flow. Semi-conductors are a very useful intermediate class, not as conductive as metals but considerably more conductive than insulators. By adding certain impurities to semi-conductors in the appropriate concentrations, the conductivity can be well- controlled.

These are: 1. Charging by friction - this is useful for charging insulators. If you rub one material with another say, a plastic ruler with a piece of paper towel , electrons have a tendency to be transferred from one material to the other.

For example, rubbing glass with silk or saran wrap generally leaves the glass with a positive charge; rubbing PVC rod with fur generally gives the rod a negative charge. Charging by conduction - useful for charging metals and other conductors.

If a charged object touches a conductor, some charge will be transferred between the object and the conductor, charging the conductor with the same sign as the charge on the object. Charging by induction - also useful for charging metals and other conductors. Again, a charged object is used, but this time it is only brought close to the conductor, and does not touch it. If the conductor is connected to ground ground is basically anything neutral that can give up electrons to, or take electrons from, an object , electrons will either flow on to it or away from it.

When the ground connection is removed, the conductor will have a charge opposite in sign to that of the charged object. The electrons that surround the nucleus of the atom have a negative electric charge. The protons which partly make up the nucleus have a positive electric charge.

The neutrons which also make up the nucleus have no electric charge. The negative charge of the electron is exactly equal and opposite to the positive charge of the proton. For example, two electrons separated by a certain distance will repel one another with the same force as two protons separated by the same distance, and, likewise, a proton and an electron separated by the same distance will attract one another with a force of the same magnitude.

In essence, charge conservation is an accounting relationship between the amount of charge in a region and the flow of charge into and out of that same region.

The moving electric charges may be either electrons or ions. To define current more precisely, suppose that the charges are moving perpendicular to a surface of area A, as shown in Figure This area could be the cross-sectional area of a wire, for example. That is, 1 A of current is equivalent to 1 C of charge passing through the surface area in 1 s.

Because the electric field is zero, there is no net transport of charge through the wire, and therefore there is no current. The battery sets up a potential difference between the ends of the loop, creating an electric field within the wire.

The electric field exerts forces on the electrons in the wire, causing them to move around the loop and thus creating a current. It is common to refer to a moving charge positive or negative as a mobile charge carrier. For example, the mobile charge carriers in a metal are electrons. It is conventional to assign the current direction the same direction as the flow of positive charge. In electrical conductors, such as copper or aluminum, the current is due to the motion of negatively charged electrons.

Therefore, when we speak of current in an ordinary conductor, the direction of the current is opposite to that of flow of electrons. However, if we are considering a beam of positively charged protons in an accelerator, the current is in the direction of motion of the protons.

Electricity and Magnetism

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Lecture 8: Magnets and Magnetism. Electricity and Magnetism The full set of lecture notes come in around pages and can be downloaded here.

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SES #, TOPICS, LECTURE NOTES. 1, Introduction Coulomb's Law, Superposition Energy of Charge Distributions, (PDF). 2, Electric Field, Electric Flux, Gauss's.

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