Application Of Results And Ethics In Research Methodology Pdf
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- Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research, fourth edition (2018)
- Psychology Research Ethics
- Research Methods
There are a number of ethical principles that should be taken into account when performing undergraduate and master's level dissertation research. At the core, these ethical principles stress the need to a do good known as beneficence and b do no harm known as non-malfeasance.
Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research, fourth edition (2018)
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm.
However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants. This means that they must abide by certain moral principles and rules of conduct. In Britain, ethical guidelines for research are published by the British Psychological Society and in America by the American Psychological Association.
The purpose of these codes of conduct is to protect research participants, the reputation of psychology, and psychologists themselves. Ethical Issues in Psychology. Moral issues rarely yield a simple, unambiguous, right or wrong answer. It is therefore often a matter of judgment whether the research is justified or not. For example, it might be that a study causes psychological or physical discomfort to participants, maybe they suffer pain or perhaps even come to serious harm.
On the other hand, the investigation could lead to discoveries that benefit the participants themselves or even have the potential to increase the sum of human happiness. Rosenthal and Rosnow also talk about the potential costs of failing to carry out certain research. Who is to weigh up these costs and benefits? Who is to judge whether the ends justify the means? Finally, if you are ever in doubt as to whether research is ethical or not it is worthwhile remembering that if there is a conflict of interest between the participants and the researcher it is the interests of the subjects that should take priority.
Studies must now undergo an extensive review by an institutional review board US or ethics committee UK before they are implemented. All UK research requires ethical approval by one or more of the following:.
NHS research. Committees review proposals assess if the potential benefits of the research are justifiable in the light of the possible risk of physical or psychological harm.
Some of the more important ethical issues are as follows:. Whenever possible investigators should obtain the consent of participants. They also need to know what it is that they are agreeing to. In other words, the psychologist should, so far as is practicable explain what is involved in advance and obtain the informed consent of participants.
Before the study begins the researcher must outline to the participants what the research is about, and then ask their consent i. However, it is not always possible to gain informed consent. Where it is impossible for the researcher to ask the actual participants, a similar group of people can be asked how they would feel about taking part. If they think it would be OK then it can be assumed that the real participants will also find it acceptable.
This is known as presumptive consent. After the research is over the participant should be able to discuss the procedure and the findings with the psychologist. They must be given a general idea of what the researcher was investigating and why, and their part in the research should be explained. Participants must be told if they have been deceived and given reasons why. They must be asked if they have any questions and those questions should be answered honestly and as fully as possible.
Debriefing should take place as soon as possible and be as full as possible; experimenters should take reasonable steps to ensure that participants understand debriefing. Researchers must ensure that those taking part in research will not be caused distress. They must be protected from physical and mental harm. This means you must not embarrass, frighten, offend or harm participants. Normally, the risk of harm must be no greater than in ordinary life, i.
The researcher must also ensure that if vulnerable groups are to be used elderly, disabled, children, etc. For example, if studying children, make sure their participation is brief as they get tired easily and have a limited attention span.
Types of deception include i deliberate misleading, e. The researcher should avoid deceiving participants about the nature of the research unless there is no alternative — and even then this would need to be judged acceptable by an independent expert. However, there are some types of research that cannot be carried out without at least some element of deception. In reality, no shocks were given and the learners were confederates of Milgram. This is sometimes necessary in order to avoid demand characteristics i.
Another common example is when a stooge or confederate of the experimenter is used this was the case in both the experiments carried out by Asch. However, participants must be deceived as little as possible, and any deception must not cause distress. Researchers can determine whether participants are likely to be distressed when deception is disclosed, by consulting culturally relevant groups.
If the participant is likely to object or be distressed once they discover the true nature of the research at debriefing, then the study is unacceptable. The true nature of the research should be revealed at the earliest possible opportunity, or at least during debriefing. Participants, and the data gained from them must be kept anonymous unless they give their full consent. No names must be used in a lab report. What do we do if we find out something which should be disclosed e.
Researchers have no legal obligation to disclose criminal acts and have to determine which is the most important consideration: their duty to the participant vs. Ultimately, decisions to disclose information will have to be set in the context of the aims of the research. Participants should be able to leave a study at any time if they feel uncomfortable. They should also be allowed to withdraw their data. They should be told at the start of the study that they have the right to withdraw.
McLeod, S. Psychology research ethics. Simply Psychology. American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Harris, B. Key words: A history of debriefing in social psychology.
Morawski Ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Rosenthal, R. Applying Hamlet's question to the ethical conduct of research: A conceptual addendum. American Psychologist, 39 5 , The British Psychological Society. Code of Human Research Ethics. Toggle navigation. Saul McLeod , updated Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research.
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Psychology Research Ethics
Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies , which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific , humanities , artistic , economic, social , business, marketing , practitioner research , life, technological , etc.
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm. However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants. This means that they must abide by certain moral principles and rules of conduct.
Ethical Considerations can be specified as one of the most important parts of the research. Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing. According to Bryman and Bell  the following ten points represent the most important principles related to ethical considerations in dissertations:. In order to address ethical considerations aspect of your dissertation in an effective manner, you will need to expand discussions of each of the following points to at least one paragraph:. Voluntary participation of respondents in the research is important. Moreover, participants have rights to withdraw from the study at any stage if they wish to do so. Respondents should participate on the basis of informed consent.
This paper examined the meaning of ethics and research ethics in particular; the right behavior in conducting and disseminating their research findings (Blumberg, A researcher must select the appropriate methodology to employ, relevant.
Learning Skills:. Writing Your Dissertation or Thesis eBook. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Effectively, they set out how we expect others to behave, and why.
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