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- Adopting New Identities When a Partner has Depression: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
- Interpretative phenomenological analysis
- Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research
Adopting New Identities When a Partner has Depression: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
Interpretative phenomenological analysis IPA is an approach to psychological qualitative research with an idiographic focus, which means that it aims to offer insights into how a given person, in a given context, makes sense of a given phenomenon.
Usually these phenomena relate to experiences of some personal significance, such as a major life event, or the development of an important relationship. It has its theoretical origins in phenomenology and hermeneutics , and key ideas from Edmund Husserl , Martin Heidegger , and Maurice Merleau-Ponty are often cited. It is distinct from other approaches, in part, because of its combination of psychological, interpretative, and idiographic components.
Sometimes IPA studies involve a close examination of the experiences and meaning-making activities of only one participant. Most frequently they draw on the accounts of a small number of people 6 has been suggested as a good number, although anywhere between 3 and 15 participants for a group study can be acceptable . In either case, participants are invited to take part precisely because they can offer the researcher some meaningful insight into the topic of the study; this is called purposive sampling [i.
Usually, participants in an IPA study are expected to have certain experiences in common with one another: the small-scale nature of a basic IPA study shows how something is understood in a given context, and from a shared perspective, a method sometimes called homogeneous sampling. More advanced IPA study designs may draw together samples which offer multiple perspectives on a shared experience husbands and wives, for example, or psychiatrists and patients ; or they may collect accounts over a period of time, to develop a longitudinal analysis.
In IPA, researchers gather qualitative data from research participants using techniques such as interview , diaries, or focus group. Typically, these are approached from a position of flexible and open-ended inquiry, and the interviewer adopts a stance which is curious and facilitative rather than, say, challenging and interrogative.
IPA usually requires personally-salient accounts of some richness and depth, and it requires that these accounts be captured in a way which permits the researcher to work with a detailed verbatim transcript. Data collection does not set out to test hypotheses, and this stance is maintained in data analysis.
The analyst reflects upon their own preconceptions about the data, and attempts to suspend these in order to focus on grasping the experiential world of the research participant. Transcripts are coded in considerable detail, with the focus shifting back and forth from the key claims of the participant, to the researcher's interpretation of the meaning of those claims. IPA's hermeneutic stance is one of inquiry and meaning-making,  and so the analyst attempts to make sense of the participant's attempts to make sense of their own experiences, thus creating a double hermeneutic.
One might use IPA if one had a research question which aimed to understand what a given experience was like phenomenology and how someone made sense of it interpretation. Analysis in IPA is said to be 'bottom-up. IPA studies do not test theories, then, but they are often relevant to the development of existing theories. One might use the findings of a study on the meaning of sexual intimacy to gay men in close relationships, for example, to re-examine the adequacy of theories which attempt to predict and explain safe sex practices.
After transcribing the data, the researcher works closely and intensively with the text, annotating it closely 'coding' for insights into the participants' experience and perspective on their world. As the analysis develops, the researcher catalogues the emerging codes, and subsequently begins to look for patterns in the codes. These patterns are called 'themes'. Themes are recurring patterns of meaning ideas, thoughts, feelings throughout the text. Themes are likely to identify both something that matters to the participants i.
Some themes will eventually be grouped under much broader themes called 'superordinate themes'. For example, 'Feeling anxious and overwhelmed during the first driving lessons' might be a superordinate category which captures a variety of patterns in participants' embodied, emotional and cognitive experiences of the early phases of learning to drive, where we might expect to find sub-themes relating to, say, 'Feeling nervous,' 'Worrying about losing control,' and 'Struggling to manage the complexities of the task.
In IPA, a good analysis is one which balances phenomenological description with insightful interpretation, and which anchors these interpretations in the participants' accounts. It is also likely to maintain an idiographic focus so that particular variations are not lost , and to keep a close focus on meaning rather than say, causal relations. A degree of transparency contextual detail about the sample, a clear account of process, adequate commentary on the data, key points illustrated by verbatim quotes is also crucial to estimating the plausibility and transferability of an IPA study.
Engagement with credibility issues such as cross-validation, cooperative inquiry , independent audit, or triangulation is also likely to increase the reader's confidence. Due to an increased interest in the constructed nature of certain aspects of illness how we perceive bodily and mental symptoms , IPA has been particularly recommended for its uses in the field of health psychology. With a general increase in the number of IPA studies published over the last decade  has come the employment of this method in a variety of fields including business organisational psychology , sexuality, and key life transitions such as transitioning into motherhood  and living with cancer as a chronic illness .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hermeneutics, human sciences and health: Linking theory and practice. The Possibilities of Phenomenology for Organizational Research. Organizational Research Methods, , The Psychologist, , Giving voice and making sense in Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Qualitative Research in Psychology, , Health and romance: understanding unprotected sex in relationships between gay men. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2, M, Wearden A.
Journal of clinical nursing, 27 , Categories : Phenomenological methodology Qualitative research. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Shqip Edit links.
Interpretative phenomenological analysis
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Smith and P. Flowers and M. Smith , P. Flowers , M. Larkin Published Psychology.
Interpretative phenomenological analysis IPA is an approach to psychological qualitative research with an idiographic focus, which means that it aims to offer insights into how a given person, in a given context, makes sense of a given phenomenon. Usually these phenomena relate to experiences of some personal significance, such as a major life event, or the development of an important relationship. It has its theoretical origins in phenomenology and hermeneutics , and key ideas from Edmund Husserl , Martin Heidegger , and Maurice Merleau-Ponty are often cited. It is distinct from other approaches, in part, because of its combination of psychological, interpretative, and idiographic components. Sometimes IPA studies involve a close examination of the experiences and meaning-making activities of only one participant. Most frequently they draw on the accounts of a small number of people 6 has been suggested as a good number, although anywhere between 3 and 15 participants for a group study can be acceptable .
See our resources page for information, support and best practices. Due to the current restrictions in place, our inspection copy policy has changed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis IPA is an increasingly popular approach to qualitative inquiry. This handy text covers its theoretical foundations and provides a detailed guide to conducting IPA research. Extended worked examples from the authors' own studies in health, sexuality, psychological distress and identity illustrate the breadth and depth of IPA research. Each of the chapters also offers a guide to other good exemplars of IPA research in the designated area.
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research
In Western cultures, the mental distress of a partner has been associated with significant impacts for the individual, with feelings of stress and burnout associated with the caregiving role e. Research has begun to explore the lived experience of being in a couple relationship with an individual experiencing depression, however further research is needed, particularly with regard to the roles and identities they adopt in response to the depression. Five adults participated in the research; all were in heterosexual relationships with a partner who had experienced depression during the course of their relationship. Participants were recruited through support services and from general community settings.