Teaching Children To Read And Write Ecoming An Effective Literacy Teacher Pdf
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If successful, they will be far better prepared for courses in content areas they are unfamiliar with like those they will take in college.
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- Tips on Teaching Literacy to Elementary Students
- 3 Methods for teaching reading
- The 8 Principles for Becoming an Effective Literacy Teacher. ( Mind Map)
If we truly care about all Australian children and young people becoming literate I believe it is vital we understand and define the complexity of literacy. The conflation of different terms like reading instruction and literacy is not very useful. While reading is part of literacy, literacy is a much bigger concept which is continually changing due to the ever-increasing forms of literacy that are developing.
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Phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge account for more of the variation in early reading and spelling success than general intelligence, overall maturity level, or listening comprehension. They are the basis for learning an alphabetic writing system. Children who have poorly developed phonemic awareness at the end of kindergarten are likely to become poor readers. Explicit instruction in sound identification, matching, segmentation, and blending, when linked appropriately to sound-symbol association, reduces the risk of reading failure and accelerates early reading and spelling acquisition for all children.
In addition to phoneme awareness and letter knowledge, knowledge of sound-symbol associations is vital for success in first grade and beyond. Accurate and fluent word recognition depends on phonics knowledge.
The ability to read words accounts for a substantial proportion of overall reading success even in older readers. Good readers do not depend primarily on context to identify new words. When good readers encounter an unknown word, they decode the word, name it, and then attach meaning.
The context of the passage helps a reader get the meaning of a word once a word has been deciphered. Beginning readers must apply their decoding skills to fluent, automatic reading of text.
Children who are reading with adequate fluency are much more likely to comprehend what they are reading. Thus the concept of independent reading level is important: it is that level at which the child recognizes more than 95 percent of the words and can read without laboring over decoding. Poor readers often read too slowly. Some poor readers have a specific problem with fluent, automatic text reading even though they have learned basic phonics. Knowledge of word meanings is critical to reading comprehension.
Knowledge of words supports comprehension, and wide reading enables the acquisition of word knowledge. At school age, children are expected to learn the meanings of new words at the rate of several thousand per year.
Most of these words are acquired by reading them in books or hearing them read aloud from books. Networks of words, tied conceptually, are the foundation of productive vocabulary. Key in developing this foundation is active processing of word meanings, which develops understanding of words and their uses, and connections among word concepts.
The undisputed purpose of learning to read is to comprehend. Although children are initially limited in what they can read independently, comprehension instruction can occur as soon as they enter school. Comprehension depends, firstly, on a large, working vocabulary and substantial background knowledge. Even before children can read for themselves, teachers can build this vital background knowledge by reading interactively and frequently to children from a variety of narrative and expository texts, chosen in part for their ability to expand what children know about the world around them.
Further, comprehension is enhanced when teachers make sure students understand what they are reading by asking questions and encouraging student questions and discussions. Effective instruction will help the reader actively relate his or her own knowledge or experience to the ideas written in the text, and then remember the ideas that he or she has come to understand. Reading and writing are two sides of the same coin. Both depend on fluent understanding and use of language at many levels.
Each enhances the other. From first grade onward, children benefit from almost daily opportunities to organize, transcribe, and edit their thoughts in writing. A variety of writing assignments appropriate to their abilities is desirable, including production of narratives and exposition.
While they are building the skills of letter formation, spelling, and sentence generation, children also should be taught to compose in stages: generating and organizing ideas, initially with a group or partner; producing a draft; sharing ideas with others for the purpose of gaining feedback; and revising, editing, proofreading, and publishing.
Recent research supports the premise that written composition is enhanced by mastery of the component skills of spelling and writing just as reading comprehension is supported by mastery of fluent word recognition.
Fluent, accurate letter formation and spelling are associated with students' production of longer and better-organized compositions. Word usage, handwriting, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling are the necessary conventions of written expression that must be taught alongside strategies for composing.
Students learn spelling and handwriting more readily if those skills are taught explicitly from first grade onward and if they are applied in the context of frequent, purposeful writing assignments. Frequent assessment of developing readers, and the use of that information for planning instruction, is the most reliable way of preventing children from falling behind and staying behind.
A clear message from longitudinal studies of reading development is that most children who become poor readers in third grade and beyond were having difficulty right from the start with phonologically-based reading skills. In addition, instruction that targets the specific weaknesses most likely to cause reading difficulty often prevents later reading failure and facilitates the reading development of most children. As we have emphasized earlier, a successful teacher of beginning reading generates enthusiasm and appreciation for reading.
Research reviews have repeatedly stated that children who are read to often, who are led to enjoy books, and who are encouraged to read widely are more likely to become good readers than children who lack these experiences. Teachers who are juggling the technical challenges of program organization and delivery may lose sight of the fact that purposeful reading and writing is the goal of instruction. Information on the importance of daily reading aloud, the selection of varied reading material, the use of the library, and the integration of topics across the curriculum will bolster literacy instruction, even as teachers focus on teaching specific reading and writing skills.
Team and school initiatives to promote a love of books and wide reading should be ever-present. Adams, M. Reading, writing and literacy. Siegal and K. Renniger Eds. New York: Wiley. Bear, D. Invernizzi, M. Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling. Beck, I. Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. Pearson Ed. New York: Longman Press. The fertility of some types of vocabulary instruction. Getting at the meaning: How to help students unpack difficult text. American Educator, 22, , The rationale and design of a program to teach vocabulary to fourth-grade students.
Berninger, V. Early intervention for spelling problems: Teaching spelling units of varying size within a multiple connections framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, Treatment of handwriting fluency problems in beginning writing: Transfer from handwriting to composition.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, Ehri, L. Graphophonemic awareness: Development in elementary students. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, Fletcher, J. Reading: A research-based approach. Evers Ed. Graham, S. The role of mechanics in composing of elementary school students: A new methodological approach. Moats, L. The missing foundation in teacher education. American Educator, 19 2 , 9, National Reading Panel.
Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Text comprehension. Part 2 of Chap. Vocabulary instruction. Part 1 of Chap. Pressley, M. Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. New York: Guilford Press. Scarborough, H. The fate of phonemic awareness beyond the early school years.
Scientific Studies of Reading, 2, Snow, C. Preventing reading difficulties in young children pp. In addition to their mention in Every Child Reading: An Action Plan, these components are commonly delineated in documents such as research reviews, state standards on instruction, the Reading Excellence Act funding criteria, curriculum guidelines, and teacher instructional manuals.
Of course, as the National Reading Panel notes, "phonics teaching is a means to an end. In implementing systematic phonics instruction, educators must keep the end in mind and ensure that children understand the purpose of learning letter sounds and that they are able to apply these skills accurately and fluently in their daily reading and writing activities" Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Health, , p.
The panel's report also states that, notwithstanding the fact that explicit, systematic, synthetic phonics is the most effective approach, there remain unanswered questions on how to make this instruction as effective as possible.
For example, the panel notes that more research is needed on questions such as how long single instruction sessions should last, how many letter-sound relations should be taught, and how many months or years a phonics program should continue. Moreover, some children will learn and appropriately apply phonics skills quickly and effortlessly, while others must be taught slowly, step by step. The individual variation in any group remains a continual challenge to teacher judgment, resourcefulness, and program management skill.
In the standardization of the Texas Primary Reading Inventory, these subtests combined predict the likelihood of success or failure with about 90 percent accuracy.
Tips on Teaching Literacy to Elementary Students
There is no magic bullet when it comes to teaching literacy, but we do know that a good teacher is more effective than any one program or strategy. When teachers struggle with challenges such as divided time in the classroom or small classroom libraries, they often have no one to turn to. In a program designed for teaching literacy, teachers can built their own support systems. When considering the most successful tactics for teaching literacy, a teacher should focus on modeling great literacy strategies throughout the day. Young children look to their teachers as models for how to behave and think. Teachers should talk about what they are doing and thinking as they read aloud. In this way, they are explicitly teaching thinking about thinking also called metacognition.
View larger. Download instructor resources. Additional order info. K educators : This link is for individuals purchasing with credit cards or PayPal only. This popular text, written by distinguished reading teacher and researcher, Robert Ruddell, successfully combines the latest in research information with highly practical ways teachers can really put this information to use in their own classrooms, making this one of the best books available at the present time. The new fourth edition strongly emphasizes strategies to enhance early reading and spelling abilities, including, among others, techniques for nurturing phonemic awareness and emergent writing. Furthermore, Ruddell presents best practices for use throughout the elementary and middle school years to ensure continued growth in word identification, including both phonics and structural analysis; sight vocabulary and meaning vocabulary development; fluency; and comprehension of narrative and informational text.
3 Methods for teaching reading
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. T eaching reading well is far more complicated than it might seem to a casual observer.
In fact, some organizations are spending a lot of time and money trying to identify effective teachers and compare them to their less-than-effective peers in an attempt to define what a good teacher does to get desired results. Ironically, we as teachers are, understandably, so caught up in the immediacy of teaching that we forget to reflect on what good teaching looks like to us. After spending several years as a literacy coach, observing in classrooms, and helping teachers use data to drive instruction, I have noticed some similarities among teachers who get good results, I am speaking quantitatively and qualitatively, by the way. For what it is worth, these are just a few of my observations about what makes a teacher a good teacher. This means that they have high expectations for each one of their students.
The 8 Principles for Becoming an Effective Literacy Teacher. ( Mind Map)
Phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge account for more of the variation in early reading and spelling success than general intelligence, overall maturity level, or listening comprehension. They are the basis for learning an alphabetic writing system. Children who have poorly developed phonemic awareness at the end of kindergarten are likely to become poor readers. Explicit instruction in sound identification, matching, segmentation, and blending, when linked appropriately to sound-symbol association, reduces the risk of reading failure and accelerates early reading and spelling acquisition for all children. In addition to phoneme awareness and letter knowledge, knowledge of sound-symbol associations is vital for success in first grade and beyond. Accurate and fluent word recognition depends on phonics knowledge.
Information to support teachers in implementing a range of approaches that will help students to develop the knowledge, strategies, and awareness required to become effective readers. Listening to a story told or read aloud can be a captivating experience. Reading to students frees them from decoding and supports them in becoming more active listeners, totally immersed in the text. They enrich their vocabulary by hearing and discussing new words in context and familiar words used in new ways.
Этой своей мнимой перепиской Танкадо мог убедить Стратмора в чем угодно. Она вспомнила свою первую реакцию на рассказ Стратмора об алгоритме, не поддающемся взлому. Сьюзан была убеждена, что это невозможно. Угрожающий потенциал всей этой ситуации подавил. Какие вообще у них есть доказательства, что Танкадо действительно создал Цифровую крепость.
If You're a Student
Он очень долго планировал, как осуществит свою мечту, и выбрал Нуматаку со всей тщательностью. Нуматек - богатая фирма, наиболее вероятный победитель аукциона. Ни у кого не вызовет подозрений, если ключ попадет именно к. И что особенно удачно - эту компанию меньше всего можно было заподозрить в том, что она состоит в сговоре с американским правительством. Токуген Нуматака воплощал старую Японию, его девиз - Лучше смерть, чем бесчестье. Он ненавидел американцев.
- В этом все и. - Мидж… - Доброй ночи, Чед. - Она направилась к двери. - Ты уходишь. - Ты же знаешь, что я бы осталась, - сказала она, задержавшись в дверях, - но у меня все же есть кое-какая гордость. Я просто не желаю играть вторую скрипку - тем более по отношению к подростку. - Моя жена вовсе не подросток, - возмутился Бринкерхофф.
Снова воцарилось молчание. Стратмор покачал головой, отказываясь верить тому, что услышал. - Не может быть, чтобы Грег Хейл был гарантом затеи Танкадо. Это полный абсурд. Танкадо ни за что не доверился бы Хейлу.
Тогда станет понятно, почему он вручную отключил Следопыта. Через несколько секунд на экране показалась надпись: ОБЪЕКТ НЕ НАЙДЕН Не зная, что искать дальше, она ненадолго задумалась и решила зайти с другой стороны. НАЙТИ: ЗАМОК ЭКРАНА Монитор показал десяток невинных находок - и ни одного намека на копию ее персонального кода в компьютере Хейла.
Казалось, тучный шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности вот-вот рухнет на пол. - Мертв. Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий.
Постарайтесь пройти по нему до конца. Сьюзан вздохнула: - Программа принимает ключ только в цифровой форме. Мне кажется, что тут содержится некий намек на то, что это за цифра.