Vitamins And Minerals In Food Pdf
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Enter something special:. Vitamins and minerals are compounds necessary for the healthy functioning of our bodies.
A Harvard Health article. Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients because they perform hundreds of roles in the body. There is a fine line between getting enough of these nutrients which is healthy and getting too much which can end up harming you.
Vitamins and Minerals
Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and good health. The human body contains chemical compounds such as water, carbohydrates, amino acids found in proteins , fatty acids found in lipids , and nucleic acids DNA and RNA. These compounds are composed of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Any study done to determine nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the whole diet and of all the materials excreted and eliminated from the body including urine and feces.
The seven major classes of nutrients are carbohydrates , fats , fiber , minerals , proteins , vitamins , and water. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are macronutrients, and provide energy.
The macronutrients excluding fiber and water provide structural material amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built , and energy. Some of the structural material can also be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories often called "Calories" and written with a capital 'C' to distinguish them from little 'c' calories. Vitamins, minerals, fiber,  and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons.
A third class of dietary material , fiber i. For all age groups, males on average need to consume higher amounts of macronutrients than females. In general, intakes increase with age until the second or third decade of life.
Some nutrients can be stored - the fat-soluble vitamins - while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients, or for some vitamins and minerals, too much of a required nutrient. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized by the body, and must be obtained from food.
Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose to complex polysaccharides starch.
Fats are triglycerides , made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Some of the amino acids are convertible with the expenditure of energy to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose, in a process known as gluconeogenesis.
By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs naturally when atrophy takes place, or during periods of starvation. The list of nutrients that people are known to require is, in the words of Marion Nestle , "almost certainly incomplete".
Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides , disaccharides or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer sugar units they contain. They are a diverse group of substances, with a range of chemical, physical and physiological properties. Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Monosaccharides include glucose , fructose and galactose. Traditionally, simple carbohydrates were believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates.
This, however, is not accurate. The most common plant carbohydrate nutrient — starch — varies in its absorption. Starches have been classified as rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms , bonded to a glycerol.
They are typically found as triglycerides three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the chemical structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded , so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length.
Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated one double-bond or polyunsaturated many double-bonds.
Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans -isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called partial hydrogenation. There are nine kilocalories in each gram of fat.
Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid , catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid , in addition to providing energy, represent potent immune modulatory molecules. Saturated fats typically from animal sources have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia. Unsaturated fats e. Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature such as butter or lard , while unsaturated fats are typically liquids such as olive oil or flaxseed oil. Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance.
Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so. However, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet.
An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids— omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids —seems also important for health, although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive. Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins , which have roles throughout the human body.
The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA , or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins e.
The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins e. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins. In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.
The conversion desaturation of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme deltadesaturase , which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin up-regulation and glucagon down-regulation. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate , specifically a polysaccharide, which is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized, it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram, but in most circumstances, it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility.
Whole grains, beans, and other legumes , fruits especially plums , prunes , and figs , and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber.
Fiber has three primary mechanisms, which in general determine their health impact: bulking, viscosity and fermentation. Some soluble and insoluble fibers produce a solution of high viscosity ; this is essentially a gel, which slows the movement of food through the intestines. Fermentable fibers are used as food by the microbiome , mildly increasing bulk, and producing short-chain fatty acids and other metabolites, including vitamins, hormones, and glucose.
One of these metabolites, butyrate , is important as an energy source for colon cells, and may improve metabolic syndrome. In , the U. FDA approved a qualified health claim stating that resistant starch might reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes , but with qualifying language for product labels that only limited scientific evidence exists to support this claim. The FDA requires specific labeling language, such as the guideline concerning resistant starch: "High-amylose maize resistant starch may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
FDA has concluded that there is limited scientific evidence for this claim. Proteins are the basis of many animal body structures e. Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids which contain nitrogen and sometimes sulphur these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair.
The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins protein retention and to replace damaged proteins maintenance. Amino acids are soluble in the digestive juices within the small intestine, where they are absorbed into the blood.
Once absorbed, they cannot be stored in the body, so they are either metabolized as required or excreted in the urine. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. For all animals, some amino acids are essential an animal cannot produce them internally so they must be eaten and some are non-essential the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds. About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential.
The synthesis of some amino acids can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress, and those are called conditionally essential. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids especially those that are essential is particularly important in some situations: during early development and maturation, pregnancy, lactation, or injury a burn, for instance.
A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids. It is possible with protein combinations of two incomplete protein sources e.
However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. There is an ongoing debate about the differences in nutritional quality and adequacy of protein from vegan , vegetarian and animal sources, though many studies and institutions have found that a well-planned vegan or vegetarian diet contains enough high-quality protein to support the protein requirements of both sedentary and active people at all stages of life.
Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces , sweating , and by water vapour in the exhaled breath. Therefore, it is necessary to adequately rehydrate to replace lost fluids. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6—8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.
Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. For healthful hydration, the current EFSA guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2. These reference values include water from drinking water, other beverages, and from food. The EFSA panel also determined intakes for different populations. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity.
Dehydration and over-hydration - too little and too much water, respectively - can have harmful consequences. Drinking too much water is one of the possible causes of hyponatremia , i. Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms,  other than the four elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules.
Some have roles as cofactors , while others are electrolytes. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned — including several metals , which often occur as ions in the body. Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells.
Some are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most well-known is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter. Many elements are required in smaller amounts microgram quantities , usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes. Many ultratrace elements have been suggested as essential, but such claims have usually not been confirmed. Definitive evidence for efficacy comes from the characterization of a biomolecule containing the element with an identifiable and testable function.
These include:  .
Vitamins and Minerals
Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and good health. The human body contains chemical compounds such as water, carbohydrates, amino acids found in proteins , fatty acids found in lipids , and nucleic acids DNA and RNA. These compounds are composed of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Any study done to determine nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the whole diet and of all the materials excreted and eliminated from the body including urine and feces. The seven major classes of nutrients are carbohydrates , fats , fiber , minerals , proteins , vitamins , and water. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are macronutrients, and provide energy.
Сзади, перпендикулярно туннелю, начинался коридор, едва освещаемый красными лампочками, вмонтированными в пол. - Пойдемте, - позвал Бринкерхофф, помогая Сьюзан вылезти. Она шла следом за ним точно в тумане. Коридор, выложенный кафельными плитками, довольно круто спускался вниз, и Сьюзан держалась за перила, стараясь не отставать. Воздух в помещении становился все прохладнее.
Сьюзан подавила поднимающуюся волну страха. В нескольких метрах от нее ярко светился экран Хейла. - Со мной… все в порядке, - выдавила. Сердце ее готово было выскочить из груди. Было видно, что Хейл ей не поверил.
Ослепленные глаза горели огнем. Он хотел крикнуть, но в легких не было воздуха, с губ срывалось лишь невнятное мычание. - Нет! - закашлявшись, исторгнул он из груди. Но звук так и не сорвался с его губ.
- Ты, наверное, не понял. Эти группы из четырех знаков… - Уберите пробелы, - повторил. Сьюзан колебалась недолго, потом кивнула Соши.
Adids, - прошептал человек и бросился на него подобно пантере. Раздался выстрел, мелькнуло что-то красное. Но это была не кровь.
Офицер был шокирован. - Вы же только что прибыли.
Water soluble vitamins
Соши замолчала. - Полезный груз? - предложил Бринкерхофф. - Количество жертв. Ущерб в долларах. - Нам нужна точная цифра, - напомнила Сьюзан. - Оценки ущерба всюду приводятся разные. - Она еще раз взглянула на текст.
Нуматек корпорейшн никогда не получит невзламываемый алгоритм… а агентство - черный ход в Цифровую крепость. Он очень долго планировал, как осуществит свою мечту, и выбрал Нуматаку со всей тщательностью. Нуматек - богатая фирма, наиболее вероятный победитель аукциона. Ни у кого не вызовет подозрений, если ключ попадет именно к. И что особенно удачно - эту компанию меньше всего можно было заподозрить в том, что она состоит в сговоре с американским правительством.
Я сейчас ее убью. Сзади щелкнул взведенный курок беретты. - Отпусти ее, - раздался ровный, холодный голос Стратмора. - Коммандер! - из последних сил позвала Сьюзан. Хейл развернул Сьюзан в ту сторону, откуда слышался голос Стратмора.
Их компьютер через Интерпол засек имя Танкадо в регистратуре полиции Севильи. - От разрыва сердца? - усомнилась Сьюзан. - Ему ведь всего тридцать лет. - Тридцать два, - уточнил Стратмор. - У него был врожденный порок сердца.
Пытаясь успокоиться, она посмотрела на экран своего компьютера. Запущенный во второй раз Следопыт все еще продолжал поиск, но теперь это уже не имело значения. Сьюзан знала, что он принесет ей в зубах: GHALEcrypto. nsa.
Беккер миновал указатель Центр Севильи - 2 км. Если бы ему удалось затеряться в центральной части города, у него был бы шанс спастись. Спидометр показывал 60 миль в час.
Я все. - Довольно, Грег, - тихо сказал Стратмор. Хейл крепче обхватил Сьюзан и шепнул ей на ухо: - Стратмор столкнул его вниз, клянусь. - Она не клюнет на твою тактику разделяй и властвуй, - сказал Стратмор, подходя еще ближе. - Отпусти .
Бринкерхофф почувствовал, как его лицо заливается краской. Двадцатисемилетняя Кармен Хуэрта была поваром-кондитером в столовой АН Б. Бринкерхофф провел с ней наедине несколько приятных и, как ему казалось, тайных встреч в кладовке. Мидж злорадно подмигнула. - Никогда не забывай, Чед, что Большой Брат знает .
Сейчас произойдет передача, - предупредил Смит. - В первый раз мы этого не заметили.