Matteotti Machiavelli Mussolini And Fascism Pdf
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He ruled constitutionally until , when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship. Known as Il Duce "the leader".
So the journey she takes with intellectuals escaping Fascism, or surviving or thriving under it, begins with the period that immediately preceded its rise in Italy in She uses the story of the marginalised discipline of experimental psychology at the University of Florence as her historical field site because it offers a critical window into the contradictory role played by Italian neo-idealism in that process.
Prior to that date, Mussolini had been skillfully navigating between intransigent currents and moderate sectors of Fascism. The hardliners considered the moderate outcome of the March on Rome to have been a betrayal of the Fascist revolution. The moderate Fascists, to the contrary, considered the revolutionary period of Fascism to have come to an end with the formation of the Mussolini government. That is certainly not to say that the moderate Fascists rejected the use of violence in the political struggle. They feared that violence, employed and displayed on a widespread, uncontrolled basis, would ultimately undermine the consensus of the moderate social classes that had looked favorably upon the formation of the Mussolini government.
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He ruled constitutionally until , when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship. Known as Il Duce "the leader". Mussolini was one of the key figures in the creation of fascism. Mussolini denounced the PSI, and later founded the fascist movement. After destroying all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes,  Mussolini and his fascist followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship.
Within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian state. A few months later, he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic , a German client regime in northern Italy; he held this post until his death in Since , Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe until at least On 10 June , Mussolini sided with Germany, though he was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity in to carry out a long war with France and the United Kingdom.
On 24 July , soon after the start of the Allied invasion of Italy , Mussolini was defeated in the vote at the Grand Council of Fascism , and the King had him arrested the following day.
On 12 September , Mussolini was rescued from prison in the Gran Sasso raid by German special forces. In late April , with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north,  only to be quickly captured and summarily executed near Lake Como by Italian partisans.
His body was then taken to Milan where it was hung upside down at a service station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.
Birthplace of Benito Mussolini, today used as a museum. His siblings Arnaldo and Edvige followed. As a young boy, Mussolini would spend some time helping his father in his smithy. As a compromise with his mother, Mussolini was sent to a boarding school run by Salesian monks. After joining a new school, Mussolini achieved good grades, and qualified as an elementary schoolmaster in Mussolini's booking photograph following his arrest by Swiss police, In , Mussolini emigrated to Switzerland, partly to avoid military service.
During this time he studied the ideas of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche , the sociologist Vilfredo Pareto , and the syndicalist Georges Sorel. Mussolini became active in the Italian socialist movement in Switzerland, working for the paper L'Avvenire del Lavoratore , organizing meetings, giving speeches to workers and serving as secretary of the Italian workers' union in Lausanne.
In February ,  Mussolini once again left Italy, this time to take the job as the secretary of the labor party in the Italian-speaking city of Trento, which at the time was part of Austria-Hungary. Returning to Italy, he spent a brief time in Milan, and then in he returned to his hometown of Forli, where he edited the weekly Lotta di classe The Class Struggle.
This novel he co-wrote with Santi Corvaja, and was published as a serial book in the Trento newspaper Il Popolo. It was released in installments from 20 January to 11 May  The novel was bitterly anticlerical, and years later was withdrawn from circulation after Mussolini made a truce with the Vatican.
By now, he was considered to be one of Italy's most prominent Socialists. In September , Mussolini participated in a riot, led by Socialists, against the Italian war in Libya.
He bitterly denounced Italy's "imperialist war" to capture the Libyan capital city of Tripoli, an action that earned him a five-month jail term. As a result, he was rewarded the editorship of the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti! Under his leadership, its circulation soon rose from 20, to , In , he published Giovanni Hus, il veridico Jan Hus, true prophet , an historical and political biography about the life and mission of the Czech ecclesiastic reformer Jan Hus , and his militant followers, the Hussites.
During this socialist period of his life Mussolini sometimes used the pen name "Vero Eretico" sincere misbeliever. While Mussolini was associated with socialism, he also was supportive of figures who opposed egalitarianism.
For instance Mussolini was influenced by Nietszche's anti-Christian ideas and negation of God's existence. With the outbreak of World War I a number of socialist parties initially supported the war when it began in August One of the most prominent and popular Italian nationalist supporters of the war was Gabriele d'Annunzio who promoted Italian irredentism and helped sway the Italian public to support intervention in the war.
Mussolini initially held official support for the party's decision and, in an August article, Mussolini wrote "Down with the War. We remain neutral. As Mussolini's support for the intervention solidified, he came into conflict with socialists who opposed the war.
He attacked the opponents of the war and claimed that those proletarians who supported pacifism were out of step with the proletarians who had joined the rising interventionist vanguard that was preparing Italy for a revolutionary war. Gasti, that describe his background and his position on the First World War that resulted in his ouster from the Italian Socialist Party.
After being ousted by the Italian Socialist Party for his support of Italian intervention, Mussolini made a radical transformation, ending his support for class conflict and joining in support of revolutionary nationalism transcending class lines. On 5 December , Mussolini denounced orthodox socialism for failing to recognize that the war had made national identity and loyalty more significant than class distinction. Mussolini continued to promote the need of a revolutionary vanguard elite to lead society.
He no longer advocated a proletarian vanguard, but instead a vanguard led by dynamic and revolutionary people of any social class. These basic political views and principles formed the basis of Mussolini's newly formed political movement, the Fasci Rivoluzionari d'Azione Internazionalista in , who called themselves Fascisti Fascists. Mussolini became an ally with the irredentist politician and journalist Cesare Battisti, and like him he entered the Army and served in the war.
Mussolini's military experience is told in his work Diario Di Guerra. Overall, he totaled about nine months of active, front-line trench warfare. During this time, he contracted paratyphoid fever. He was left with at least 40 shards of metal in his body  He was discharged from the hospital in August and resumed his editor-in-chief position at his new paper, Il Popolo d'Italia. He wrote there positive articles about Czechoslovak Legions in Italy. On 25 December , in Treviglio , he contracted a marriage with his fellow countrywoman Rachele Guidi, who had already borne him a daughter, Edda, at Forli in In , he had a son with Ida Dalser , a woman born in Sopramonte, a village near Trento.
By the time he returned from Allied service in World War I, there was very little left of Mussolini the socialist. Indeed, he was now convinced that socialism as a doctrine had largely been a failure. An important factor in fascism gaining support in its earliest stages was the fact that it claimed to oppose discrimination based on social class and was strongly opposed to all forms of class war. The ideological basis for fascism came from a number of sources. Mussolini utilized works of Plato, Georges Sorel , Nietzsche , and the socialist and economic ideas of Vilfredo Pareto , to create fascism.
Mussolini admired The Republic , which he often read for inspiration. Also unlike fascism, it promoted very communist-like views on property. Plato was an idealist, focused on achieving justice and morality, while Mussolini and fascism were realist, focused on achieving political goals.
The basic underlying idea behind Mussolini's foreign policy was that of spazio vitale vital space , a concept in Fascism that was analogous to lebensraum in German National Socialism. The right to colonize the neighboring Slovene ethnic areas and Mediterranean, being inhabited by what were alleged to be less developed peoples, was justified on the grounds that Italy was suffering from overpopulation. Borrowing the idea first developed by Enrico Corradini before of the natural conflict between "plutocratic" nations like Britain and "proletarian" nations like Italy, Mussolini claimed that Italy's principle problem was that it was "plutocratic" countries like Britain that were blocking Italy from achieving the necessary spazio vitale that would let the Italian economy grow.
Though biological racism was less prominent in Fascism than National Socialism, right from the start there was a strong racist undercurrent to the spazio vitale concept, in which Mussolini asserted there was a "natural law" for stronger peoples to subject and dominate "inferior" peoples such as the "barbaric" Slavic peoples of Yugoslavia as Mussolini claimed in a September speech, when Mussolini stated:. When dealing with such a race as Slavic - inferior and barbarian - we must not pursue the carrot, but the stick policy We should not be afraid of new victims I would say we can easily sacrifice , barbaric Slavs for 50, Italians During the period of occupation between years and , five hundred "Slav" societies for example Sokol , and slightly smaller number of libraries "reading rooms" had been forbidden, and specifically so later with the Law on Associations , the Law on Public Demonstrations and the Law on Public Order , the closure of the classical lyceum in Pazin, of the high school in Voloska , the closure of the five hundred  Slovene and Croatian primary schools followed.
One thousand "Slav" teachers were forcibly exiled to Sardinia and elsewhere to South Italy. In the same way, Mussolini argued that Italy was right to follow an imperalist policy in Africa because all black people were "inferior" to whites. Mussolini and the fascists managed to be simultaneously revolutionary and traditionalist ;   because this was vastly different to anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described as "The Third Way".
The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists, and anarchists at parades and demonstrations; all of these factions were also involved in clashes against each other.
The government rarely interfered with the blackshirts' actions, owing in part to a looming threat and widespread fear of a communist revolution. The Fascisti grew so rapidly that within two years, it transformed itself into the National Fascist Party at a congress in Rome.
Also in , Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time. The "march" took place in between 27—29 October. The King then handed over power to Mussolini by inviting him to form a new government. Mussolini was supported by the military, the business class, and the liberal right-wing. As Prime Minister, the first years of Mussolini's rule were characterized by a right-wing coalition government composed of Fascists, nationalists, liberals, and two Catholic clerics from the Popular Party.
The Fascists made up a small minority in his original governments. Mussolini's domestic goal was the eventual establishment of a totalitarian state with himself as supreme leader Il Duce a message that was articulated by the Fascist newspaper Il Popolo , which was now edited by Mussolini's brother, Arnaldo. To that end, Mussolini obtained from the legislature dictatorial powers for one year legal under the Italian constitution of the time.
He favored the complete restoration of state authority, with the integration of the Fasci di Combattimento into the armed forces the foundation in January of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale and the progressive identification of the party with the state. In political and social economy, he passed legislation that favored the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes privatizations, liberalizations of rent laws and dismantlement of the unions.
In the end, the League of Nations proved powerless, and Greece was forced to comply with Italian demands. Writing of Mussolini's foreign policy, the American historian Gerhard Weinberg said:. This was almost certainly a correct perception, but, given the ideology of Fascism with its emphasis on the moral benefits of war, it did not lead to the conclusion that an Italy without a big stick had best speak very, very softly.
On the contrary, the new regime drew the opposite conclusion. Noisy eloquence and rabid journalism might be substituted for serious preparations for war, a procedure that was harmless enough if no one took any of it seriously, but a certain road to disaster once some outside and Mussolini inside the country came to believe that the "eight million bayonets" of the Duce's imagination actually existed.
In June , the government passed the Acerbo Law , which transformed Italy into a single national constituency. Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was murdered a few days after he openly denounced Fascist violence during the elections.
The assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti , who had requested that the elections be annulled because of the irregularities,  provoked a momentary crisis in the Mussolini government. Mussolini ordered a cover-up, but witnesses saw the car that transported Matteotti's body parked outside Matteotti's residence, which linked Dumini to the murder. Mussolini later confessed that a few resolute men could have altered public opinion and started a coup that would have swept fascism away.
Dumini was imprisoned for two years. On his release Dumini allegedly told other people that Mussolini was responsible, for which he served further prison time.
Ком… мандер, - задыхаясь, пробормотала она, сбитая с толку. - Я думала… я думала, что вы наверху… я слышала… - Успокойся, - прошептал. - Ты слышала, как я швырнул на верхнюю площадку свои ботинки. Сьюзан вдруг поняла, что смеется и плачет одновременно. Коммандер спас ей жизнь. Стоя в темноте, она испытывала чувство огромного облегчения, смешанного, конечно же, с ощущением вины: агенты безопасности приближаются.
Это обычное явление для компьютерных вирусов, особенно таких, которые поражают крупные блоки информации. Из почты Танкадо Сьюзан знала также, что цепные мутации, обнаруженные Чатрукьяном, безвредны: они являются элементом Цифровой крепости. - Когда я впервые увидел эти цепи, сэр, - говорил Чатрукьян, - я подумал, что фильтры системы Сквозь строй неисправны. Но затем я сделал несколько тестов и обнаружил… - Он остановился, вдруг почувствовав себя не в своей тарелке. - Я обнаружил, что кто-то обошел систему фильтров вручную.
Fascism and ideology
Она собиралась купить билет прямо перед вылетом. Женщина нахмурилась: - Извините, сэр. Этим рейсом улетели несколько пассажиров, купивших билет перед вылетом.
- Давайте мне его номер. Я сам позвоню этому… - Не беспокойтесь, - прошептала Сьюзан. - Танкадо мертв.
Лифт. Почему же не открывается дверца. Вглядевшись, она как в тумане увидела еще одну панель с буквами алфавита от А до Z и тут же вспомнила, что нужно ввести шифр. Клубы дыма начали вытекать из треснувших оконных рам. Сьюзан в отчаянии колотила в дверную панель, но все было бесполезно.
Беккер встал и потянулся. Открыв полку над головой, он вспомнил, что багажа у него. Времени на сборы ему не дали, да какая разница: ему же обещали, что путешествие будет недолгим - туда и обратно.
Среднее время, потраченное на один шифр, - чуть более шести минут. Потребление энергии на среднем уровне. Последний шифр, введенный в ТРАНСТЕКСТ… - Она замолчала.
Она потянулась к Дэвиду. Это ей снится. Трудно было даже пошевельнуться: события вчерашнего дня вычерпали все ее силы без остатка. - Дэвид… - тихо простонала. Ответа не последовало.
Вы этого не сделаете, - как ни в чем не бывало сказал Хейл.
Это наш долг. Нравится нам это или нет, но демократию от анархии отделяет не очень-то прочная дверь, и АНБ ее охраняет. Хейл задумчиво кивнул: - Quis custodiet ipsos custodes.
За полтора метра до стеклянной двери Сьюзан отпрянула в сторону и зажмурилась. Раздался страшный треск, и стеклянная панель обдала ее дождем осколков. Звуки шифровалки впервые за всю историю этого здания ворвались в помещение Третьего узла. Сьюзан открыла .
Идти приходилось плечо к плечу, носок в пятку. У испанцев всегда было иное представление о плотности, чем у остального мира. Беккер оказался зажат между двумя полными женщинами с закрытыми глазами, предоставившими толпе нести их в собор. Они беззвучно молились, перебирая пальцами четки.