Language Discourse And Literature Pdf

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What is discourse analysis?

Discourse analysis DA , or discourse studies , is an approach to the analysis of written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. The objects of discourse analysis discourse , writing, conversation, communicative event are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences , propositions , speech , or turns-at-talk. Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary' but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use, not invented examples.

Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences , including linguistics , education, sociology , anthropology , social work , cognitive psychology , social psychology , area studies , cultural studies , international relations , human geography , environmental science , communication studies , biblical studies , public relations and translation studies , each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.

The ancient Greeks among others had much to say on discourse; however, there is ongoing discussion about whether Austria-born Leo Spitzer 's Stilstudien Style Studies of the earliest example of discourse analysis DA.

Michel Foucault translated it into French. Formal equivalence relations among the sentences of a coherent discourse are made explicit by using sentence transformations to put the text in a canonical form.

Words and sentences with equivalent information then appear in the same column of an array. Following Harris's publications, he worked over the meaning and placement of each word in a collection of Quechua legends with a native speaker of Quechua and was able to formulate discourse rules that transcended the simple sentence structure.

He then applied the process to Shipibo, another language of Eastern Peru. He taught the theory at the [7] Summer Institute of Linguistics in Norman, Oklahoma, in the summers of and and entered the [8] University of Pennsylvania to study with Harris in the interim year. Longacre developed it in his writings. Harris's methodology disclosing the correlation of form with meaning was developed into a system for the computer-aided analysis of [11] natural language by a team led by Naomi Sager at NYU , which has been applied to a number of sublanguage domains, most notably to medical informatics.

In the late s and s, and without reference to this prior work, a variety of other approaches to a new cross-discipline of DA began to develop in most of the humanities and social sciences concurrently with, and related to, other disciplines. These include semiotics , psycholinguistics , sociolinguistics , and pragmatics. Many of these approaches, especially those influenced by the social sciences, favor a more dynamic study of oral talk-in-interaction. An example is [12] "conversational analysis", which was influenced by the Sociologist Harold Garfinkel, [13] the founder of Ethnomethodology.

In Europe, Michel Foucault became one of the key theorists of the subject, especially of discourse, and wrote The Archaeology of Knowledge. In this context, the term 'discourse' no longer refers to formal linguistic aspects, but to institutionalized patterns of knowledge that become manifest in disciplinary structures and operate by the connection of knowledge and power.

Since the s, Foucault's works have had an increasing impact especially on discourse analysis in the field of social sciences. Thus, in modern European social sciences, one can find a wide range of different approaches working with Foucault's definition of discourse and his theoretical concepts.

Apart from the original context in France, there is, since , a broad discussion on socio-scientific discourse analysis in Germany. Berger and Thomas Luckmann , Keller argues, that our sense of reality in everyday life and thus the meaning of every object, actions and events are the product of a permanent, routinized interaction. Whereas the latter primarily focus on the constitution and stabilization of knowledge on the level of interaction, Foucault's perspective concentrates on institutional contexts of the production and integration of knowledge, where the subject mainly appears to be determined by knowledge and power.

Therefore, the [15] 'Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse' can also be seen as an approach to deal with the vividly discussed micro—macro problem in sociology. The following are some of the specific theoretical perspectives and analytical approaches used in linguistic discourse analysis:. Although these approaches emphasize different aspects of language use, they all view language as social interaction and are concerned with the social contexts in which discourse is embedded.

Often a distinction is made between 'local' structures of discourse such as relations among sentences, propositions, and turns and 'global' structures, such as overall topics and the schematic organization of discourses and conversations. For instance, many types of discourse begin with some kind of global 'summary', in titles, headlines, leads, abstracts, and so on. A problem for the discourse analyst is to decide when a particular feature is relevant to the specification required.

A question many linguists ask is: "Are there general principles which will determine the relevance or nature of the specification? Topics of discourse analysis include: [20]. Political Discourse: The text and talk of professional politicians or political institutions, such as presidents and prime ministers and other members of government, parliament or political parties, both at the local, national and international levels, includes both the speaker and the audience.

Political discourse analysis is a field of discourse analysis which focuses on discourse in political forums such as debates, speeches, and hearings as the phenomenon of interest. Policy analysis requires discourse analysis to be effective from the post-positivist perspective.

Political discourse is the formal exchange of reasoned views as to which of several alternative courses of action should be taken to solve a societal problem. Corporate discourse can be broadly defined as the language used by corporations. It encompasses a set of messages that a corporation sends out to the world the general public, the customers and other corporations and the messages it uses to communicate within its own structures the employees and other stakeholders.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Outline History Index. General linguistics. Applied linguistics. Acquisition Anthropological Applied Computational Discourse analysis Documentation Forensic History of linguistics Neurolinguistics Philosophy of language Phonetics Psycholinguistics Sociolinguistics Text and corpus linguistics Translating and interpreting Writing systems.

Theoretical frameworks. List of academic fields. Research design. Research proposal Research question Writing Argument Referencing. Research strategy. Interdisciplinary Multimethodology Qualitative Quantitative. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate.

December Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Public sphere and Social media use in politics. Actor policy debate Critical discourse analysis Dialogical analysis Discourse representation theory Frame analysis Communicative action Essex School of discourse analysis Ethnolinguistics Foucauldian discourse analysis Interpersonal communication Linguistic anthropology Narrative analysis Pragmatics Rhetoric Sociolinguistics Statement analysis Stylistics linguistics Worldview.

Linguistic Society of America. Retrieved Corcoran, John Transformationelle Analyse. SIL International. Foundations of Language. Human Studies. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. University of Illinois. Family Practice. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Discourse and Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing. In Hult, F. C eds. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology.

Corporate Discourse. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Communication studies. History Outline. Communication design Communication theory Communicology Crisis communication Climate communication Cross-cultural communication Development communication Discourse analysis Environmental communication Global communication Health communication International communication Mass communication Media studies Mediated cross-border communication Organizational communication Political communication Risk communication Science communication Technical communication Visual communication Closed-loop communication.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Applied linguistics Historical linguistics Linguistic anthropology Sociocultural linguistics Sociology of language. Category Linguistics portal. Part of a series on. Applied linguistics Acquisition Anthropological Applied Computational Discourse analysis Documentation Forensic History of linguistics Neurolinguistics Philosophy of language Phonetics Psycholinguistics Sociolinguistics Text and corpus linguistics Translating and interpreting Writing systems.

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The Language of Literature

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Marko Juvan.

Literature in Language Education pp Cite as. This book offers an account of existing research and practice, and aims to stimulate further research and informed pedagogic innovation in the field of literature and language teaching, with special but not exclusive reference to foreign language studies. Jacques Derrida deliberately overstates the case too. The key development was to see literary text as best studied against the background of other texts, and all texts as socially situated. Unable to display preview.

Discourse analysis

Discourse analysis DA , or discourse studies , is an approach to the analysis of written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event. The objects of discourse analysis discourse , writing, conversation, communicative event are variously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences , propositions , speech , or turns-at-talk. Contrary to much of traditional linguistics, discourse analysts not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary' but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use, not invented examples.

Abstract Literary discourse analysis — viewed legitimately as a branch of discourse analysis— is a new approach to literature. It involves organizing a class curriculum so that students research a variety of genres of written discourse—for example, formal letters, recipes, stories, or academic reports. But critical discourse analysis runs the risk, having the large and complex apparatus of linguistic description at its disposal, of staring too closely at individual phrases, at a particular instance of nominalization or a specific passive construction. That is, we want to know what sequences of sentences in a discourse can refer to.

Черные всепроникающие линии окружили последний предохранительный щит и начали прорываться к сердцевине банка данных. Алчущие хакеры прорывались со всех уголков мира. Их количество удваивалось каждую минуту. Еще немного, и любой обладатель компьютера - иностранные шпионы, радикалы, террористы - получит доступ в хранилище секретной информации американского правительства. Пока техники тщетно старались отключить электропитание, собравшиеся на подиуме пытались понять расшифрованный текст.

Он отдал Сьюзан свой пиджак, а вместе с ним - Скайпейджер. Теперь уже окаменел Стратмор. Рука Сьюзан задрожала, и пейджер упал на пол возле тела Хейла. Сьюзан прошла мимо него с поразившим его выражением человека, потрясенного предательством.

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