# Data Structures And Algorithms Interview Questions Pdf

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## Top 100 Data Structure and Algorithm Interview Questions for Java Programmers

A list of most frequently asked Data Structure interview questions and answers are given below. The data structure is a way that specifies how to organize and manipulate the data. It also defines the relationship between them. Data Structures are the central part of many computer science algorithms as they enable the programmers to handle the data in an efficient way.

Linear Data Structure: A data structure is called linear if all of its elements are arranged in the sequential order. In linear data structures, the elements are stored in a non-hierarchical way where each item has the successors and predecessors except the first and last element. The data elements are not arranged in the sequential structure. The main difference between file structure and storage structure is based on memory area that is being accessed.

Storage structure: It is the representation of the data structure in the computer memory. File structure: It is the representation of the storage structure in the auxiliary memory.

Stack data structure is used in recursion due to its last in first out nature. Operating system maintains the stack in order to save the iteration variables at each function call.

Stack is an ordered list in which, insertion and deletion can be performed only at one end that is called the top. It is a recursive data structure having pointer to its top element. It means that data is being deleted from the stack. An expression in which operators follow the operands is known as postfix expression.

The main benefit of this form is that there is no need to group sub-expressions in parentheses or to consider operator precedence. Arrays are defined as the collection of similar types of data items stored at contiguous memory locations. It is the simplest data structure in which each data element can be randomly accessed by using its index number.

It can be done by using an indexed loop such that the counter runs from 0 to the array size minus one. In this manner, you can reference all the elements in sequence by using the loop counter as the array subscript. The multidimensional array can be defined as the array of arrays in which, the data is stored in tabular form consists of rows and columns. It provides ease of holding the bulk of data at once which can be passed to any number of functions wherever required.

Column-Major Order: If array is declared as a[m][n] where m is the number of rows while n is the number of columns, then address of an element a[i][j] of the array stored in column major order is calculated as. Linked List is the collection of randomly stored data objects called nodes. In Linked List, each node is linked to its adjacent node through a pointer.

A node contains two fields, i. Data Field and Link Field. A linked list is considered both linear and non-linear data structure depending upon the situation. The heterogeneous linked list contains different data types, so it is not possible to use ordinary pointers for this. For this purpose, you have to use a generic pointer type like void pointer because the void pointer is capable of storing a pointer to any type.

The doubly linked list is a complex type of linked list in which a node contains a pointer to the previous as well as the next node in the sequence. In a doubly linked list, a node consists of three parts:.

A queue can be defined as an ordered list which enables insert operations to be performed at one end called REAR and delete operations to be performed at another end called FRONT. Dequeue also known as double-ended queue can be defined as an ordered set of elements in which the insertion and deletion can be performed at both the ends, i.

Two queues are needed. One queue is used to store the data elements, and another is used for storing priorities. The Tree is a recursive data structure containing the set of one or more data nodes where one node is designated as the root of the tree while the remaining nodes are called as the children of the root.

The nodes other than the root node are partitioned into the nonempty sets where each one of them is to be called sub-tree. A binary Tree is a special type of generic tree in which, each node can have at most two children. Binary tree is generally partitioned into three disjoint subsets, i. AVL tree controls the height of the binary search tree by not letting it be skewed. The time taken for all operations in a binary search tree of height h is O h.

However, it can be extended to O n if the BST becomes skewed i. By limiting this height to log n, AVL tree imposes an upper bound on each operation to be O log n where n is the number of nodes.

A B tree of order m contains all the properties of an M way tree. In addition, it contains the following properties. A graph G can be defined as an ordered set G V, E where V G represents the set of vertices and E G represents the set of edges which are used to connect these vertices. A graph can be seen as a cyclic tree, where the vertices Nodes maintain any complex relationship among them instead of having parent-child relations.

Binary Search algorithm is used to search an already sorted list. The algorithm follows divide and conqer approach. There are relatively less number of comparisons in binary search than that in linear search. In average case, linear search takes O n time to search a list of n elements while Binary search takes O log n time to search a list of n elements.

JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. Mail us on hr javatpoint. Please mail your requirement at hr javatpoint. Duration: 1 week to 2 week. All Interview. Data Structure Interview Questions A list of most frequently asked Data Structure interview questions and answers are given below. Data Structures are the central part of many computer science algorithms as they enable the programmers to handle the data in an efficient way 2 Describe the types of Data Structures?

Data Structures are mainly classified into two types: Linear Data Structure: A data structure is called linear if all of its elements are arranged in the sequential order.

Data structures are applied extensively in the following areas of computer science: Compiler Design, Operating System, Database Management System, Statistical analysis package, Numerical Analysis, Graphics, Artificial Intelligence, Simulation 4 What is the difference between file structure and storage structure?

Difference between file structure and storage structure: The main difference between file structure and storage structure is based on memory area that is being accessed. Operating system maintains the stack in order to save the iteration variables at each function call 7 What is a Stack? Expression evaluation Backtracking Memory Management Function calling and return 9 What are the operations that can be performed on a stack? Push: Increment the variable top so that it can refer to the next memory allocation Copy the item to the at the array index value equal to the top Repeat step 1 and 2 until stack overflows Pop: Store the topmost element into the an another variable Decrement the value of the top Return the topmost element 13 What is a postfix expression?

Polish and Reverse Polish notations. There are two techniques by using which, the elements of a 2D array can be stored in the memory. Row-Major Order: In row-major ordering, all the rows of the 2D array are stored into the memory contiguously. First, the 1st row of the array is stored into the memory completely, then the 2nd row of the array is stored into the memory completely and so on till the last row.

Column-Major Order: In column-major ordering, all the columns of the 2D array are stored into the memory contiguously. On the basis of data storage, it is considered as a non-linear data structure.

On the basis of the access strategy, it is considered as a linear data-structure. The size of a linked list can be incremented at runtime which is impossible in the case of the array. The List is not required to be contiguously present in the main memory, if the contiguous space is not available, the nodes can be stored anywhere in the memory connected through the links. The List is dynamically stored in the main memory and grows as per the program demand while the array is statically stored in the main memory, size of which must be declared at compile time.

The number of elements in the linked list are limited to the available memory space while the number of elements in the array is limited to the size of an array. Javatpoint Services JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. In a doubly linked list, a node consists of three parts: node data pointer to the next node in sequence next pointer pointer to the previous node previous pointer.

The Applications of the queue is given as follows: Queues are widely used as waiting lists for a single shared resource like a printer, disk, CPU.

Queues are used in the asynchronous transfer of data where data is not being transferred at the same rate between two processes for eg. Queues are used as buffers in most of the applications like MP3 media player, CD player, etc.

Queues are used to maintain the playlist in media players to add and remove the songs from the play-list. Queues are used in operating systems for handling interrupts. Memory Wastage: The space of the array, which is used to store queue elements, can never be reused to store the elements of that queue because the elements can only be inserted at front end and the value of front might be so high so that, all the space before that, can never be filled.

Array Size: There might be situations in which, we may need to extend the queue to insert more elements if we use an array to implement queue, It will almost be impossible to extend the array size, therefore deciding the correct array size is always a problem in array implementation of queue. In that case, overflow occurs and therefore, insertion can not be performed in the queue. If rear! If front! There are six types of tree given as follows. Queue data structure 40 Which data structure suits the most in the tree construction?

Queue data structure 41 Write the recursive C function to count the number of nodes present in a binary tree. Every node in a B-Tree contains at most m children. The root nodes must have at least 2 nodes. All leaf nodes must be at the same level.

Searching for some data is a slower process since data can be found on internal nodes as well as on the leaf nodes. Deletion will never be a complexed process since element will always be deleted from the leaf nodes.

## Top 35 Data Structure Interview Questions in 2021

What is a Data Structure? A data structure is a way of organizing the data so that the data can be used efficiently. Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, B-trees are particularly well-suited for the implementation of databases, while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers. Source: Wiki Page. What are the various operations that can be performed on different Data Structures?

Data structures are essential in almost every aspect where data is involved. In general, algorithms that involve efficient data structure is applied.

## 300+ TOP DATA STRUCTURES Interview Questions and Answers pdf

Knowing how to store data and manipulate the same easily will give programmers an edge over the competition. Data structures are used across the world in almost every aspect of data storage one can think of. This means that the questions you might find in an interview can be challenging. Data Structures are extremely integral in a variety of fields.

Another list of good questions. Try it.

What are the major data structures used in the following areas : Rdbms, network data model and Hierarchical data model. If you are using c language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, What pointer type will you use? It is not possible to use ordinary pointers for this.

A data structure is the method of arrangement of data in the computer for ease of storage and retrieval. It provides an efficient way to manage a large amount of data. Here is a list of important interview questions about Data structures with answers. Download Complete PDF file.

Land the Software Engineer job you want by mastering one of the most challenging questions you might face during the interview. This book is a collection of Data Structures and Algorithms to train and win the Interview. Appwrite Up and Running. Front End Developer Interview Questions. ReactJS Documentation.

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1. Wellmonnisa 29.12.2020 at 05:55

Commonly available data structures are list, arrays, stack, queues, graph, tree etc​. What is algorithm? Algorithm is a step by step procedure, which defines a set of​.

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