Health Sustainability And The Built Environment Dak Kopec Pdf
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How does a room affect an occupant's behavior and well-being? How does a building influence its residents' health?
- Environmental Psychology for Design by Dak Kopec (2018, Trade Paperback)
- Environmental Psychology for Design / Edition 3
- 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design
Environmental Psychology for Design by Dak Kopec (2018, Trade Paperback)
Biophilic design can reduce stress, enhance creativity and clarity of thought, improve our well-being and expedite healing; as the world population continues to urbanize, these qualities are ever more important. Theorists, research scientists, and design practitioners have been working for decades to define aspects of nature that most impact our satisfaction with the built environment.
Biophilia in Context looks at the evolution of biophilic design in architecture and planning and presents a framework for relating the human biological science and nature. Design Considerations explores a sampling of factors e. The Patterns lays out a series of tools for understanding design opportunities, including the roots of the science behind each pattern, then metrics, strategies and considerations for how to use each pattern.
This paper moves from research on biophilic responses to design application as a way to effectively enhance health and well-being for individuals and society. We thank Alice Hartley for editorial assistance, Allison Bernett and Cas Smith for production assistance, the Review Committee and Contributors for their technical guidance and expertise, Georgy Olivieri for her relentless energy and dedication to spreading the word, Stefano Serafini and the International Society of Biourbanism for providing guidance and encouragement.
William Browning , Hon. Biophilic design can reduce stress, improve cognitive function and creativity, improve our well-being and expedite healing; as the world population continues to urbanize, these qualities are ever more important. Given how quickly an experience of nature can elicit a restorative response, and the fact that U. It helps explain why crackling fires and crashing waves captivate us; why a garden view can enhance our creativity; why shadows and heights instill fascination and fear; and why animal companionship and strolling through a park have restorative, healing effects.
Biophilia may also help explain why some urban parks and buildings are preferred over others. For decades, research scientists and design practitioners have been working to define aspects of nature that most impact our satisfaction with the built environment. But how do we move from research to application in a manner that effectively enhances health and well-being, and how should efficacy be judged? Terrapin Bright Green, , the intent of this paper is to articulate the relationships between nature, science, and the built environment so that we may experience the human benefits of biophilia in our design applications.
The paper presents a framework for biophilic design that is reflective of the nature-health relationships most important in the built environment — those that are known to enhance our lives through a connection with nature. New research supports measureable, positive impacts of biophilic design on health, strengthening the empirical evidence for the human-nature connection and raising its priority level within both design research and design practice; however, little guidance for implementation exists.
This paper is intended to help close the gap between current research and implementation. The intended audiences of this publication are interior designers, architects, landscape architects, urban designers, planners, health professionals, employers and developers, as well as anyone wanting to better understand the patterns of biophilia.
This paper puts biophilic design in context with architectural history, health sciences and current architectural practices, and briefly touches on key implementation considerations, then presents biophilic design patterns. The patterns have been developed through extensive interdisciplinary research and are supported by empirical evidence and the work of Christopher Alexander, Judith Heerwagen, Rachel and Stephen Kaplan, Stephen Kellert, Roger Ulrich, and many others.
Over publications on biophilic responses have been mined to uncover patterns useful to designers of the built environment. These 14 patterns have a wide range of applications for both interior and exterior environments, and are meant to be flexible and adaptive, allowing for project-appropriate implementation:.
Finally, this paper discusses these patterns in a general sense for the purpose of addressing universal issues of human health and well-being e. As such, the focus is on patterns in nature known, suggested or theorized to mitigate common stressors or enhance desirable qualities that can be applied across various sectors and scales.
We hope this paper presents the foundation necessary for thinking more critically about the human connection with nature and how biophilic design patterns can be used as a tool for improving health and well-being in the built environment.
Those words were set down more than years ago, around 30 B. It is easy to understand the emotion prompting them; we still recognize what Horace meant by a rural garden, a place to take refuge, as he did, from the irritations of city life. Representations of animals and plants have long been used for decorative and symbolic ornamentation. Beyond representation, cultures around the world have long brought nature into homes and public spaces.
Classic examples include the garden courtyards of the Alhambra in Spain, porcelain fish bowls in ancient China, the aviary in Teotihuacan ancient Mexico City , bonsai in Japanese homes, papyrus ponds in the homes of Egyptian nobles, the cottage garden in medieval Germany, or the elusive hanging gardens of Babylon. The consistency of natural themes in historic structures and places suggests that biophilic design is not a new phenomenon; rather, as a field of applied science, it is the codification of history, human intuition and neural sciences showing that connections with nature are vital to maintaining a healthful and vibrant existence as an urban species.
Prior to and even after the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of humans lived an agrarian existence, living much of their lives among nature. Olmsted, As urban populations grew in the 19th Century, reformers became increasingly concerned with health and sanitation issues such as fire hazards and dysentery.
The creation of large public parks became a campaign to improve the health and reduce the stress of urban living. Artists and designers of the Victorian era, such as influential English painter and art critic, John Ruskin, pushed back against what they saw as the dehumanizing experience of industrial cities.
They argued for objects and buildings that reflected the hand of the craftsman and drew from nature for inspiration. In the design of the Science Museum at Oxford, Ruskin is said to have told the masons to use the surrounding countryside for inspiration, and the results can be seen in the inclusion of hand-carved flowers and plants adorning the museum 3.
Western attitudes toward nature were shifting in the midth Century; natural landscapes became valid art subjects, as seen in the Hudson River School and the Barbizon School in France. Going to the mountains or seashore for recreation was becoming a growing trend; Winter gardens and conservatories become requisites of wealthy homes in Europe and the United States.
Henry David Thoreau built a cabin by Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts from which he wrote treatises on a simpler life, connected to nature, which still resonate in the American consciousness. In hospital design, sunlight and a view to nature was believed to be important, as can be seen at St. Designed in the s to the concepts of Dr.
Sternberg, Inspiration from nature was in full view in the Art Nouveau designs of the late 19th Century. In Chicago, Louis Sullivan created elaborate ornamentation with leaves and cornices that represent tree branches. Wright abstracted prairie flowers and plants for his art glass windows and ornamentation.
Like many in the Craftsman movement, Wright used the grain of wood and texture of brick and stone as a decorative element. Wright also opened up interiors to flow through houses in ways that had not been done before, creating prospect views balanced with intimate refuges.
His later designs sometimes include exhilarating spaces, like the balcony cantilevering out over the waterfall at Fallingwater. European Modernists stripped much ornamentation from their buildings, but, like Wright, used wood grain and the veining of stone as decorative elements and were equally concerned with exploring the relationship of interior to exterior.
Later, his Farnsworth House built defined interior and exterior much more literally, by segregating the elements from the visual connection to nature. As the International Style took root, it spread glass buildings everywhere; unfortunately, the buildings, and particularly the interiors of commercial buildings, increasingly disconnected people from nature. The sundry denotations — which have evolved from within the fields of biology and psychology, and been adapted to the fields of neuroscience, endocrinology, architecture and beyond — all relate back to the desire for a re connection with nature and natural systems.
That we should be genetically predisposed to prefer certain types of nature and natural scenery, specifically the savanna, was posited by Gordon Orians and Judith Heerwagen 6. Savanna Hypothesis, , and could theoretically be a contributing motivation for moving to the suburbs, with the suburban lawn being a savanna for everyone. With the emergence of the green building movement in the early s, linkages were made between improved environmental quality and worker productivity 7.
While the financial gains due to productivity improvements were considered significant, productivity was identified as a placeholder for health and well-being, which have even broader impact. Ulrich, The translation of biophilia as a hypothesis into design of the built environment was the topic of a conference and subsequent book on biophilic design The last decade has seen a steady growth in work around and the intersections of neuroscience and architecture, both in research and in practice; even green building standards have begun to incorporate biophilia, predominantly for its contribution to indoor environmental quality and connection to place.
Popular texts, such as Last Child in the Woods Louv, , Healing Spaces Sternberg, , The Shape of Green Hosey, , Your Brain on Nature Most recently, biophilic design is being championed as a complementary strategy for addressing workplace stress, student performance, patient recovery, community cohesiveness and other familiar challenges to health and overall well-being. Views of what constitutes natural, nature, wild, or beautiful greatly vary.
Simply put, there are two extreme connotations of nature. One is that nature is only that which can be classified as a living organism unaffected by anthropogenic impacts on the environment — a narrow perspective of nature reminiscent of conventional hands-off environmental preservation that ultimately no longer exists because nearly everything on Earth has been and will continue to be impacted at least indirectly by humans.
Additionally, this idea of nature essentially excludes everything from the sun and moon, your pet fish Nemo, home gardens and urban parks, to humans and the billions of living organisms that make up the biome of the human gut. Alternatively, it could be argued that everything, including all that humans design and make, is natural and a part of nature because they are each extensions of our phenotype. This perspective inevitably includes everything from paperback books and plastic chairs, to chlorinated swimming pools and asphalt roadways.
Humans create savanna analogues all the time. As designed ecosystems, some, such as the high canopy forests with floral undergrowth maintained by the annual burning practices of the Ojibwe people of North America, are biodiverse, vibrant and ecologically healthy. Others, such as suburban lawns and golf courses, are chemical dependent monocultures; while beautiful, they are not biodiverse, ecologically healthy or resilient.
The key issue is that some designed environments are well-adapted supporting long term life and some are not.
So while golf courses and suburban lawns may be a savanna analogue, in many cases they require intense inputs of water and fertilizer and thus are unfortunately unsustainable design practices.
Biophilic design can be organized into three categories — Nature in the Space, Natural Analogues, and Nature of the Space — providing a framework for understanding and enabling thoughtful incorporation of a rich diversity of strategies into the built environment.
Nature in the Space addresses the direct, physical and ephemeral presence of nature in a space or place. This includes plant life, water and animals, as well as breezes, sounds, scents and other natural elements.
Common examples include potted plants, flowerbeds, bird feeders, butterfly gardens, water features, fountains, aquariums, courtyard gardens and green walls or vegetated roofs. The strongest Nature in the Space experiences are achieved through the creation of meaningful, direct connections with these natural elements, particularly through diversity, movement and multi-sensory interactions.
Natural Analogues addresses organic, non-living and indirect evocations of nature. Mimicry of shells and leaves, furniture with organic shapes, and natural materials that have been processed or extensively altered e. The strongest Natural Analogue experiences are achieved by providing information richness in an organized and sometimes evolving manner.
Nature of the Space addresses spatial configurations in nature. This includes our innate and learned desire to be able to see beyond our immediate surroundings, our fascination with the slightly dangerous or unknown; obscured views and revelatory moments; and sometimes even phobia-inducing properties when they include a trusted element of safety.
The strongest Nature of the Space experiences are achieved through the creation of deliberate and engaging spatial configurations commingled with patterns of Nature in the Space and Natural Analogues.
Periodically throughout this paper, these patterns will be referred to in shorthand by their number 1 to 14 for quick reference. Sternberg, , pp For a more technical introduction to the hormones and neurotransmitters that govern our mind-body systems, see Principles of Neural Science Kandel et al. To familiarize the reader with these nature-health relationships, these mind-body systems are discussed here in the briefest sense, and are supported with a table of familiar hormones and neurotransmitters, environmental stressors, and biophilic design strategies.
Cognitive functioning encompasses our mental agility and memory, and our ability to think, learn and output either logically or creatively. For instance, directed attention is required for many repetitive tasks, such as routine paperwork, reading and performing calculations or analysis, as well as for operating in highly stimulating environments, as when crossing busy streets.
Directed attention is energy intensive, and over time can result in mental fatigue and depleted cognitive resources e. Kellert et al. Strong or routine connections with nature can provide opportunities for mental restoration, during which time our higher cognitive functions can sometimes take a break.
Environmental Psychology for Design / Edition 3
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14 Patterns of Biophilic Design
Biophilic design can reduce stress, enhance creativity and clarity of thought, improve our well-being and expedite healing; as the world population continues to urbanize, these qualities are ever more important. Theorists, research scientists, and design practitioners have been working for decades to define aspects of nature that most impact our satisfaction with the built environment. Biophilia in Context looks at the evolution of biophilic design in architecture and planning and presents a framework for relating the human biological science and nature. Design Considerations explores a sampling of factors e.
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