Mirnas And Long Noncoding Rnas As Biomarkers In Human Diseases Pdf
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- MiRNA and LncRNA as Potential Biomarkers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Review
- The Role of microRNAs, Long Non-coding RNAs, and Circular RNAs in Cervical Cancer
- Long Noncoding RNAs as Novel Biomarkers Have a Promising Future in Cancer Diagnostics
MiRNA and LncRNA as Potential Biomarkers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Review
MiRNAs, ncRNAs of approximately 19—25 nucleotides in length, are involved in gene expression regulation either via degradation or silencing of the messenger RNAs mRNAs and have roles in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. LncRNAs can activate or repress gene expression through various mechanisms, acting alone or in combination with miRNAs and other molecules as part of various pathways. Our synthesis provides insight into the mechanisms involved in TNBC progression and has potential to aid the discovery of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. TNBC is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptor ER , progesterone receptor PR , and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 HER2 , relative to normal tissue or other types of BC, as well as a high proliferative index determined by mitotic or Ki proliferative indices , high histological grade, and high rates of metastasis 2 — 4. TNBCs frequently undergo early metastasis to visceral organs and brain 5 — 7 and are more often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Furthermore, this neoplasm is often diagnosed at a relatively young age and is a major cause of female mortality 8 —
The Role of microRNAs, Long Non-coding RNAs, and Circular RNAs in Cervical Cancer
One database of transcriptomes of potential interest for readers of this review is the NURSA website www. Table 1 highlights features of these ncRNAs and their roles in cellular processes. Enhancers are relatively insensitive to position and distance of their target genes and about half are intragenic, which can result in inhibition or attenuation of nascent transcript elongation Cinghu et al. Table 1 Summary of ncRNAs in humans, excluding rRNA and tRNA, with their size, cellular location, aspects of biogenesis, function, citations for reviews for roles in various endocrine-related cancers and websites. Moreover, these RNAs are chemically modified, e.
Prolonged infection of uterine cervix epithelium with human papillomavirus HPV and constitutive expression of viral oncogenes have been recognized as the main cause of the complex molecular changes leading to transformation of cervical epithelial cells. Viral encoded circE7 has also demonstrated to overexpress E7 oncoprotein thus contributing to cell transformation. Cervical SCC is generally preceded by persistent squamous intraepithelial lesions SIL caused by HPV infection, therefore the detection of viral nucleic acids has shown to be valuable for the effective prevention of cervical cancer development in oncologic screening programs 3. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins encoded by high risk HPVs are considered the main players of the multistep transformation process affecting the infected cervical cells. Indeed, they are able to inhibit p53 and pRb oncosuppressors, respectively, and to interact with a plethora of cell signaling factors regulating cell cycle, genome stability and epigenetic modifications 4 , 5. Moreover, the HPV E5 protein has also a relevant role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis for its ability to increase the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and c-MET, the latter being also critical for viral gene expression 6 , 7. Nevertheless, the gradually accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in HPV infected cells is also crucial for the ultimate progression to cervical cancer.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License. In , Lee et al 1 discovered the first microRNA miRNA , lin-4, which by repressing the lin gene is essential for controlling the timing of Caenorhabditis elegans larval development. In , the miRNAlet-7 was discovered to repress lin to promote a later developmental transition in C. Since then, a number of evolutionarily conserved miRNAs have been identified, from plants and fungi to humans, and have been shown to play various roles in biological and pathophysiological processes. To date, thousands of studies on miRNAs using well-developed methods which are now performed routinely 3.
PDF | Biomarkers are quantifiable indicators of disease. These surrogates microRNAs (miRNA) and long non-coding RNAs. (lncRNA).
Long Noncoding RNAs as Novel Biomarkers Have a Promising Future in Cancer Diagnostics
Long noncoding RNAs lncRNAs are a relatively well-characterized class of noncoding RNA ncRNA molecules, involved in the regulation of various cell processes, including transcription, intracellular trafficking, and chromosome remodeling. Their deregulation has been associated with the development and progression of various cancer types, the fact which makes them suitable as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In recent years, detection of cancer-associated lncRNAs in body fluids of cancer patients has proven itself as an especially valuable method to effectively diagnose cancer.
Cancers have a high mortality rate due to lack of suitable specific early diagnosis tumor biomarkers. Emerging evidence is accumulating that lncRNAs long noncoding RNAs are involved in tumorigenesis, tumor cells proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, extracellular lncRNAs can circulate in body fluids; they can be detected and strongly resist RNases. Many researchers have found that lncRNAs could be good candidates for tumor biomarkers and possessed high specificity, high sensitivity, and noninvasive characteristics. In this review, we summarize the detection methods and possible sources of circulating lncRNAs and outline the biological functions and expression level of the most significant lncRNAs in tissues, cell lines, and body fluids whole blood, plasma, urine, gastric juice, and saliva of different kinds of tumors.
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