The Interplay Of Influence News Advertising Politics And The Internet Pdf
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Barry M. The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location.
The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure. Beginning with the early research in packet switching, the government, industry and academia have been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology.
This is intended to be a brief, necessarily cursory and incomplete history. Much material currently exists about the Internet, covering history, technology, and usage. A trip to almost any bookstore will find shelves of material written about the Internet.
Learn more about how we are building a bigger, stronger Internet in This history revolves around four distinct aspects. There is the technological evolution that began with early research on packet switching and the ARPANET and related technologies , and where current research continues to expand the horizons of the infrastructure along several dimensions, such as scale, performance, and higher-level functionality.
There is the operations and management aspect of a global and complex operational infrastructure. There is the social aspect, which resulted in a broad community of Internauts working together to create and evolve the technology. And there is the commercialization aspect, resulting in an extremely effective transition of research results into a broadly deployed and available information infrastructure.
The Internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the National or Global or Galactic Information Infrastructure. Its history is complex and involves many aspects — technological, organizational, and community.
And its influence reaches not only to the technical fields of computer communications but throughout society as we move toward increasing use of online tools to accomplish electronic commerce, information acquisition, and community operations.
He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today. Roberts, of the importance of this networking concept. Kleinrock convinced Roberts of the theoretical feasibility of communications using packets rather than circuits, which was a major step along the path towards computer networking.
The other key step was to make the computers talk together. The result of this experiment was the realization that the time-shared computers could work well together, running programs and retrieving data as necessary on the remote machine, but that the circuit switched telephone system was totally inadequate for the job.
These last two nodes incorporated application visualization projects, with Glen Culler and Burton Fried at UCSB investigating methods for display of mathematical functions using storage displays to deal with the problem of refresh over the net, and Robert Taylor and Ivan Sutherland at Utah investigating methods of 3-D representations over the net. Even at this early stage, it should be noted that the networking research incorporated both work on the underlying network and work on how to utilize the network.
This tradition continues to this day. Computers were added quickly to the ARPANET during the following years, and work proceeded on completing a functionally complete Host-to-Host protocol and other network software. This was the first public demonstration of this new network technology to the public. In July, Roberts expanded its utility by writing the first email utility program to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages.
From there email took off as the largest network application for over a decade. Internet was based on the idea that there would be multiple independent networks of rather arbitrary design, beginning with the ARPANET as the pioneering packet switching network, but soon to include packet satellite networks, ground-based packet radio networks and other networks. The Internet as we now know it embodies a key underlying technical idea, namely that of open architecture networking.
Up until that time there was only one general method for federating networks. This was the traditional circuit switching method where networks would interconnect at the circuit level, passing individual bits on a synchronous basis along a portion of an end-to-end circuit between a pair of end locations.
Recall that Kleinrock had shown in that packet switching was a more efficient switching method. Along with packet switching, special purpose interconnection arrangements between networks were another possibility. While there were other limited ways to interconnect different networks, they required that one be used as a component of the other, rather than acting as a peer of the other in offering end-to-end service.
Each network can be designed in accordance with the specific environment and user requirements of that network.
There are generally no constraints on the types of network that can be included or on their geographic scope, although certain pragmatic considerations will dictate what makes sense to offer. This work was originally part of the packet radio program, but subsequently became a separate program in its own right. Key to making the packet radio system work was a reliable end-end protocol that could maintain effective communication in the face of jamming and other radio interference, or withstand intermittent blackout such as caused by being in a tunnel or blocked by the local terrain.
Kahn first contemplated developing a protocol local only to the packet radio network, since that would avoid having to deal with the multitude of different operating systems, and continuing to use NCP.
If any packets were lost, the protocol and presumably any applications it supported would come to a grinding halt. In this model NCP had no end-end host error control, since the ARPANET was to be the only network in existence and it would be so reliable that no error control would be required on the part of the hosts. Thus, Kahn decided to develop a new version of the protocol which could meet the needs of an open-architecture network environment.
While NCP tended to act like a device driver, the new protocol would be more like a communications protocol. At this point he realized it would be necessary to learn the implementation details of each operating system to have a chance to embed any new protocols in an efficient way.
Thus, in the spring of , after starting the internetting effort, he asked Vint Cerf then at Stanford to work with him on the detailed design of the protocol. Cerf had been intimately involved in the original NCP design and development and already had the knowledge about interfacing to existing operating systems.
Subsequently a refined version was published in 7. Kahn had intended that the TCP protocol support a range of transport services, from the totally reliable sequenced delivery of data virtual circuit model to a datagram service in which the application made direct use of the underlying network service, which might imply occasional lost, corrupted or reordered packets.
However, the initial effort to implement TCP resulted in a version that only allowed for virtual circuits. This model worked fine for file transfer and remote login applications, but some of the early work on advanced network applications, in particular packet voice in the s, made clear that in some cases packet losses should not be corrected by TCP, but should be left to the application to deal with. This led to a reorganization of the original TCP into two protocols, the simple IP which provided only for addressing and forwarding of individual packets, and the separate TCP, which was concerned with service features such as flow control and recovery from lost packets.
Connecting the two together was far more economical that duplicating these very expensive computers. However, while file transfer and remote login Telnet were very important applications, electronic mail has probably had the most significant impact of the innovations from that era. Email provided a new model of how people could communicate with each other, and changed the nature of collaboration, first in the building of the Internet itself as is discussed below and later for much of society.
A key concept of the Internet is that it was not designed for just one application, but as a general infrastructure on which new applications could be conceived, as illustrated later by the emergence of the World Wide Web. The Stanford team, led by Cerf, produced the detailed specification and within about a year there were three independent implementations of TCP that could interoperate. This was the beginning of long term experimentation and development to evolve and mature the Internet concepts and technology.
Beginning with the first three networks ARPANET, Packet Radio, and Packet Satellite and their initial research communities, the experimental environment has grown to incorporate essentially every form of network and a very broad-based research and development community.
When desktop computers first appeared, it was thought by some that TCP was too big and complex to run on a personal computer. That implementation was fully interoperable with other TCPs, but was tailored to the application suite and performance objectives of the personal computer, and showed that workstations, as well as large time-sharing systems, could be a part of the Internet.
It included an emphasis on the complexity of protocols and the pitfalls they often introduce. This book was influential in spreading the lore of packet switching networks to a very wide community. This change from having a few networks with a modest number of time-shared hosts the original ARPANET model to having many networks has resulted in a number of new concepts and changes to the underlying technology.
First, it resulted in the definition of three network classes A, B, and C to accommodate the range of networks. Class A represented large national scale networks small number of networks with large numbers of hosts ; Class B represented regional scale networks; and Class C represented local area networks large number of networks with relatively few hosts.
A major shift occurred as a result of the increase in scale of the Internet and its associated management issues. To make it easy for people to use the network, hosts were assigned names, so that it was not necessary to remember the numeric addresses. Originally, there were a fairly limited number of hosts, so it was feasible to maintain a single table of all the hosts and their associated names and addresses.
The shift to having a large number of independently managed networks e. The DNS permitted a scalable distributed mechanism for resolving hierarchical host names e. The increase in the size of the Internet also challenged the capabilities of the routers.
Originally, there was a single distributed algorithm for routing that was implemented uniformly by all the routers in the Internet. As the number of networks in the Internet exploded, this initial design could not expand as necessary, so it was replaced by a hierarchical model of routing, with an Interior Gateway Protocol IGP used inside each region of the Internet, and an Exterior Gateway Protocol EGP used to tie the regions together.
This design permitted different regions to use a different IGP, so that different requirements for cost, rapid reconfiguration, robustness and scale could be accommodated. Not only the routing algorithm, but the size of the addressing tables, stressed the capacity of the routers.
New approaches for address aggregation, in particular classless inter-domain routing CIDR , have recently been introduced to control the size of router tables. As the Internet evolved, one of the major challenges was how to propagate the changes to the software, particularly the host software.
Looking back, the strategy of incorporating Internet protocols into a supported operating system for the research community was one of the key elements in the successful widespread adoption of the Internet.
This enabled defense to begin sharing in the DARPA Internet technology base and led directly to the eventual partitioning of the military and non- military communities. Thus, by , Internet was already well established as a technology supporting a broad community of researchers and developers, and was beginning to be used by other communities for daily computer communications.
Electronic mail was being used broadly across several communities, often with different systems, but interconnection between different mail systems was demonstrating the utility of broad based electronic communications between people. At the same time that the Internet technology was being experimentally validated and widely used amongst a subset of computer science researchers, other networks and networking technologies were being pursued.
The usefulness of computer networking — especially electronic mail — demonstrated by DARPA and Department of Defense contractors on the ARPANET was not lost on other communities and disciplines, so that by the mids computer networks had begun to spring up wherever funding could be found for the purpose. The U. NSFNET programs to explicitly announce their intent to serve the entire higher education community, regardless of discipline. Indeed, a condition for a U.
When Steve Wolff took over the NSFNET program in , he recognized the need for a wide area networking infrastructure to support the general academic and research community, along with the need to develop a strategy for establishing such infrastructure on a basis ultimately independent of direct federal funding. Policies and strategies were adopted see below to achieve that end. It had seen the Internet grow to over 50, networks on all seven continents and outer space, with approximately 29, networks in the United States.
A key to the rapid growth of the Internet has been the free and open access to the basic documents, especially the specifications of the protocols. The beginnings of the ARPANET and the Internet in the university research community promoted the academic tradition of open publication of ideas and results.
However, the normal cycle of traditional academic publication was too formal and too slow for the dynamic exchange of ideas essential to creating networks. In a key step was taken by S. These memos were intended to be an informal fast distribution way to share ideas with other network researchers. At first the RFCs were printed on paper and distributed via snail mail.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Campbell and K. Campbell , K. Jamieson Published Political Science. The Media: An Introduction. What Is News?
Malaysian Politics in the New Media Age
Scholar Google Profile. Aalberg, T. Introduction: Comprehending populist political communication. Aalberg, F.
And, you'll also discover the shaping role of the Internet in today's mass media. Plus, it's loaded with study tools and helpful reviews so you can get the grade you need in Ultimately, we conclude that although their influence in the races for Congress, governor and Senate was not overwhelming, online ads were fairly prevalent and did register in the minds of citizens but had some difficulty in setting the agenda of the news media. Defining Political Advertising In this paper we examine the interplay between the mass media and public opinion Newspapers, for example, have suffered from the collapse of their advertising base, leading to it is within this context of change and continuity that we examine the mass media.
Professor of Political Communication
Barry M. The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location. The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure. Beginning with the early research in packet switching, the government, industry and academia have been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology. This is intended to be a brief, necessarily cursory and incomplete history.
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