Chemical Warfare Agents Toxicology And Treatment Pdf File
- and pdf
- Tuesday, December 29, 2020 4:32:18 PM
- 0 comment
File Name: chemical warfare agents toxicology and treatment file.zip
VX (nerve agent)
Zotero Mendeley EndNote. However, use of toxic agents in wars and in attack started in the first ages of written history. The threat of chemical weapons reached to important extents in the last part of the 20th century and became a current issue in the mass destructions and terrorist events.
Therefore, nowadays and generally in the 21st century, it should be accepted that the chemical weapons take their part along with the conventional weapons and they have become most possible warfare and attack methods. Knowledge is provided by education. The counterparts of equipment are personnel, appliance, devices, organization and coordination.
Anahtar Kelimeler en tr Detection , preparedness , hemical warfare agent , history , toxicity. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences , 2 3 United Nations Department of Disarmament Affairs.
Comission on Human Rights. Szinicz L: History of chemical and biological warfare agents. Toxicology , 3 Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. American Journal of Public Health , 98 4 Critical Reviews in Toxicology , 41 5 Pharmacology Reviews , 48 2 Geneva, 17 June Fry DE: Chemical threats. Surgical Clinics of North America , 86 3 Toxicology and Industrial Health , 9 3 Farben and pharmacological research.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics , 34 1 Institute of Medicine US. Reutter S: Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives. Environmental Health Perspectives , 12 Schmaltz F: Neurosciences and research on chemical weapons of mass destruction in Nazi Germany. Journal of History of Neuroscience , 15 3 Moore WK: Two cases of poisoning with di-isopropylfluorophosphonate. British Journal of Industrial Medicine , 13 3 Kevles DJ.
New York Rev Books. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Chemical and biological weapons. Volume I: Chemical and biological Weapons. Coleman K. Schumacher K: The effects of chemical warfare agents--symptoms and therapy. Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung Jena , 64 3 New York: United Nations Publications. Z Zagadnien Sqdowych. Hay A: Simulants, stimulants and diseases: the evolution of the United States biological warfare programme, Medicine, Conflict and Survival , 15 3 Veterans and Agent Orange: Update Chapter 1.
Robin Black. The Royal Society of Chemistry Forensic Science Review , 26 2 Chinese Journal of Traumatology , 17 3 Military Medicine , 10 :vi. December, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Jasanoff S, The Bhopal disaster and the right to know. Social Science and Medicine , 27 10 Dhara R: Health effects of the Bhopal gas leak: a review. Epidemiology Preview , 14 52 The Use of Chemical Arms. Kerr KJ: Gulf War illness: an overview of events, most prevalent health outcomes, exposures, and clues as to pathogenesis.
Reviews in Environmental Health. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association , Minshall D. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.
Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service , 3 Journal of Neurological Sciences , 1 Toxicology and Appllied Pharmacology , 2 Suppl Did Sudan use chemical weapons in Darfur last year?
Dewan A, Alkashali H. Lancet , S35—S Journal of Intensive Care Medicine , 19 1 Pharmacol Rev. Nakamura K. Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi. Committies of the North Atlantic Assembly. Draft General Report. Prentiss AM: Chemicals in warfare. Reviews in Neurology , — Chemical Society Reviews , 42 22 Nature Chemical Biology , 3 6 Science , Forensic Science Reviews , 26 1 Journal of Seperation Science , 29 11 Journal of the Association for Academic Minority Physicians , 13 1 Emergency Medicine Reports.
Issue Date: April 20, Sidell FR: Management of chemical casualties: A handbook for emergency medical services. Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Gupta RC editor. Forensic Science Reviews , 26 2 Chemico-Biological Interactions , 3 Neurotoxicology , 33 6 Hart J. In: Environmental Consequences of War and Aftermath. Vesicants and nerve agents in chemical warfare. Decontamination and treatment strategies for a changed world.
Postgraduate Medicine , 4 Wattana M, Bey T: Mustard gas or sulfur mustard: an old chemical agent as a new terrorist threat. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine , 24 1 Geraci MJ: Mustard gas: imminent danger or eminent threat?
Annals of Pharmacotheapy , 42 2 Worst-case scenario protection and decontamination methods. Postgraduate Medicine , 5
Oops! 404 Not Found
Chemical warfare agents CWAs are unarguably one of the most feared toxic substances produced by mankind. Their inception in conventional warfare can be traced as far back as the Middle Ages but their full breakthrough as central players in bellic conflicts was not realized until World War I. Since then, more modern CWAs along with efficient methods for their manufacture have emerged and violently shaped the way modern warfare and diplomatic relations are conducted. Owing to their mass destruction ability, counter methods to mitigate their impact appeared almost immediately on par with their development. These efforts have focused on their efficient destruction, development of medical countermeasures and their detection by modern analytical chemistry methods.
VX is an extremely toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate. In the class of nerve agents , it was developed for military use in chemical warfare after translation of earlier discoveries of organophosphate toxicity in pesticide research. In recent years, VX was found to be the agent used in the assassination of Kim Jong-nam. In its pure form, VX is an oily, relatively non-volatile , liquid that is amber-like in color. VX, short for "venomous agent X",  is one of the best known of the V nerve agents and was first discovered at Porton Down in England during the early s based on research first done by Gerhard Schrader , a chemist working for IG Farben in Germany during the s.
CWAs include five primary categories: nerve agents, asphyxiants, blistering agents, toxic industrial chemicals and blood agents. The French military used tear gas and acetone-based compounds for crowd control; chlorine gas was placed in capsules and released at the Battle of Ypres in , and was used as an alternative weapon after the German military exhausted materials for explosive weapons and began to investigate and use CWAs. Later, other agents such as phosgene and cyanide were considered for military use, because these chemicals had more toxic pulmonary effects. Nerve agents developed in the s and s were stockpiled during the Cold War. More recently, nerve agents have been used in the Iran—Iraq War in the s, the Japanese terrorist attacks by the Aum Shinrikyo cult in and attacks in Syria in The creation of the Chemical Weapons Ban in by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons stifled the development, use and stockpiling of these materials for military use across nations. Effective treatment of all patients exposed to CWAs requires use of appropriate personal protective equipment PPE and early patient decontamination by first responders.
Chemical warfare agents
Zotero Mendeley EndNote. However, use of toxic agents in wars and in attack started in the first ages of written history. The threat of chemical weapons reached to important extents in the last part of the 20th century and became a current issue in the mass destructions and terrorist events. Therefore, nowadays and generally in the 21st century, it should be accepted that the chemical weapons take their part along with the conventional weapons and they have become most possible warfare and attack methods.
They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds.