Chemical Warfare Agents Toxicology And Treatment Pdf File
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VX (nerve agent)
Zotero Mendeley EndNote. However, use of toxic agents in wars and in attack started in the first ages of written history. The threat of chemical weapons reached to important extents in the last part of the 20th century and became a current issue in the mass destructions and terrorist events.
Therefore, nowadays and generally in the 21st century, it should be accepted that the chemical weapons take their part along with the conventional weapons and they have become most possible warfare and attack methods. Knowledge is provided by education. The counterparts of equipment are personnel, appliance, devices, organization and coordination.
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Chemical warfare agents CWAs are unarguably one of the most feared toxic substances produced by mankind. Their inception in conventional warfare can be traced as far back as the Middle Ages but their full breakthrough as central players in bellic conflicts was not realized until World War I. Since then, more modern CWAs along with efficient methods for their manufacture have emerged and violently shaped the way modern warfare and diplomatic relations are conducted. Owing to their mass destruction ability, counter methods to mitigate their impact appeared almost immediately on par with their development. These efforts have focused on their efficient destruction, development of medical countermeasures and their detection by modern analytical chemistry methods.
VX is an extremely toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate. In the class of nerve agents , it was developed for military use in chemical warfare after translation of earlier discoveries of organophosphate toxicity in pesticide research. In recent years, VX was found to be the agent used in the assassination of Kim Jong-nam. In its pure form, VX is an oily, relatively non-volatile , liquid that is amber-like in color. VX, short for "venomous agent X",  is one of the best known of the V nerve agents and was first discovered at Porton Down in England during the early s based on research first done by Gerhard Schrader , a chemist working for IG Farben in Germany during the s.
CWAs include five primary categories: nerve agents, asphyxiants, blistering agents, toxic industrial chemicals and blood agents. The French military used tear gas and acetone-based compounds for crowd control; chlorine gas was placed in capsules and released at the Battle of Ypres in , and was used as an alternative weapon after the German military exhausted materials for explosive weapons and began to investigate and use CWAs. Later, other agents such as phosgene and cyanide were considered for military use, because these chemicals had more toxic pulmonary effects. Nerve agents developed in the s and s were stockpiled during the Cold War. More recently, nerve agents have been used in the Iran—Iraq War in the s, the Japanese terrorist attacks by the Aum Shinrikyo cult in and attacks in Syria in The creation of the Chemical Weapons Ban in by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons stifled the development, use and stockpiling of these materials for military use across nations. Effective treatment of all patients exposed to CWAs requires use of appropriate personal protective equipment PPE and early patient decontamination by first responders.
Chemical warfare agents
Zotero Mendeley EndNote. However, use of toxic agents in wars and in attack started in the first ages of written history. The threat of chemical weapons reached to important extents in the last part of the 20th century and became a current issue in the mass destructions and terrorist events. Therefore, nowadays and generally in the 21st century, it should be accepted that the chemical weapons take their part along with the conventional weapons and they have become most possible warfare and attack methods.
They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Rules and Regulations Pertaining to Chemical Weapons; Listing of sarin and mustard chemical warfare agents; waste chemical weapons; and soil, water, debris, residues and containers contaminated through contact with waste chemical weapons. Denver, Colo.
Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. CW agents are extremely toxic synthetic chemicals that can be dispersed as a gas, liquid or aerosol or as agents adsorbed to particles to become a powder.